Setting Limits for Responsive Discipline
Ronald L. Pitzer, Family Sociologist and Professor — Family Social Science
Reviewed November 2008 by Kathleen A. Olson, Program Director — Partnering for School Success.
When you set limits for your children, you demonstrate your love and concern. Setting limits tells a child, “I care about you, I want you to be safe. I want you to act responsibly so that you will learn to get along happily with others.” Limits are like the guardrails on a bridge — they provide a sense of security. Take care not to overwhelm your children with rigid controls.
What Limits Should I Set?
Carefully select the limits you think are necessary and, as much as possible, consider the child's point of view. The limits you set should:
- Protect children from physical harm. An example would be keeping a preschooler away from a hot stove.
- Protect property. For example, insisting that your youngster return tools to their proper places or showing a preschooler how to use the television set are limits that protect property.
- Protect children and others from psychological harm. For example, helping children learn how to put their anger into words that are not obscenities, or showing children how to resolve conflicts without vicious teasing are limits that show respect for others' feelings and ideas.
Limit Your Limits
Before you set a limit, ask yourself: “Is this rule really important? Am I willing to deal with the conflicts that will occur if my child disregards the limit?”
Your rules should reflect your deeply held convictions or values, ones that you are committed to keeping. For example, do you really need to insist that a child eat all his or her peas, wear certain clothes, or not associate with a particular person? Or is it more important to take issue when a child destroys a friend's toy, swears at a parent, or takes money out of your wallet or purse?
Parents who set too many rules can overwhelm their children with too many demands. You are more likely to be effective if you focus on those rules you believe are most important.
Set Reasonable Limits
You also need to consider whether your children are able to do what is expected of them. It is not reasonable, for example, to demand that toddlers keep their rooms clean or to expect boisterous 10-year-olds to always remember their mealtime manners. Forbidding a child to wet the bed during the night is unreasonable at any age because children have no control over their bladders while they sleep. Denying a child the right to experience emotions such as anger and fear may be unreasonable because these feelings are often natural, healthy responses to difficult situations.
Young children desperately want to please their parents by doing what is expected of them. They believe in their parents. They think their parents know what's best for them (even if they don't always act as though they believe it). Because of their confidence in parents, if children are given an unreasonable limit, they may conclude that there is something wrong with themselves rather than with the limit. Children who feel this way are likely to develop low levels of self-esteem. Later, when they become aware of the unfairness of unreasonable limits, these children may lose respect for their parents and become distrustful of all adult authority.
You can judge whether a limit is unreasonable by observing the way your children act. They may try their best but still fail, or they may show no sign of being able to perform the task. They might become moody and depressed or even angry and defiant. Remember, if children can't be good at succeeding, then they are easily tempted to be good at failing. With this in mind, set limits so your children can succeed. Then gradually raise your expectations so they can continue to be successful.
Be Clear and Positive
State your limits clearly and simply. A clear limit tells a child exactly what is expected and when. If you tell your grade-schooler: “Every night, right after supper, you are to take the garbage, put it in the trash can outside, and make sure the lid is closed,” your child knows exactly what to do. In contrast, saying “Clean up everything after supper” is vague. Your child may not know exactly what is expected. Don't blame your child for failing to follow instructions if the instructions were not clear in the first place.
Limits will also be more effective if they emphasize the possible — if they tell a child what to do rather than what not to do. To give your child a better understanding of what is allowed as well as what the limits are, say “Play in the yard, not in the street” instead of just saying “Don't go in the street.”
When children become angry and act destructively, parents are likely to think first of negative limits: “Don't talk to me like that!” “Don't hit your brother!” “Don't throw things!” But children also need positive limits to help them deal with their emotions. Besides the “don'ts,” a parent might also say, “When you get angry, tell me how you feel — say you're angry!” This shows a child another way of handling anger.
Limits must be consistently applied and enforced. Children are more likely to respect limits when they realize their parents mean what they say. If you expect your children to wash their hands before meals, you must maintain this limit every day. If you tell your children not to play in a neighbor's yard, it must be clear that this limit applies every time they are outside. However, limits can, and should, be revised if circumstances change.
Consistent limits are dependable. They provide security and direction for children. If a child is told one day not to play with sharp scissors, then the next day is permitted to do so, and the next day is punished for doing so, he or she will never know what is really expected. A child's respect for parents and for authority in general is likely to diminish if parents keep changing the rules and are inconsistent in enforcing limits.
Once a limit is set, the child should know clearly when it applies — one time, some of the time, or all of the time. We might tell our children, “Never play in the street,” or “We don't have enough money, so no ice cream today,” or “Do not go to Billy's house around dinner time. They are busy then.”
Let Children Help Set Limits
The ultimate goal in setting limits is to help children develop self-control and self-direction. You can show confidence in your children's abilities by talking with them about problems and by encouraging them to suggest guidelines for their own behavior. As an example, a mother and her 7-year-old son first discussed and then decided together on his bedtime routine: he would go to bed at 8 p.m. on school nights and would be allowed to read for 30 minutes before turning off the lights. A decision such as this meets both the child's desire for a transition time before going to sleep and the parent's concern for a reasonable time limit.
By involving your children in setting limits, you are more likely to gain their cooperation in following the rule. Letting children help set their own limits also provides them with experience and practice in decision making.
Examine Your Limits
Examine the limits you set for your children. Ask yourself the following:
- Are they truly important?
- Are they reasonable?
- Are they clear enough for the child to understand?
- Do they tell your child what to do as well as what not to do?
- Do you apply and enforce them consistently?
- Do you encourage your children to set their own limits
Hamner, T. J. (1990). Parenting in contemporary society (2nd. ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Maccoby, E. E. & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interactions. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Smith, C. A. (2010). Limits. In Responsive discipline: A decision-making approach to guidance in parent-child relationships.
Steinberg, L. (2004). The Ten Basic Principles of Good Parenting. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
University of Minnesota Extension. (1995). Positive parenting I: A video-based parent education curriculum. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota Extension. This product is no longer available.
Positive Discipline: A Guide for Parents — Review tips for overcoming common parenting challenges from birth through early elementary years. Booklet available in English, Spanish, Hmong, and Somali; customization is also available.
Using Guidance Tools — Explore these strategies to help manage conflict and to teach responsibility to your children
Guidelines for Setting Consequences — Use these guidelines to select effect consequences for your child.
Standards and Expectations — Review what the research says about standards and expectations, and how parents and teachers can use standards and expectations to facilitate children's school success. Part of the Research on the Factors for School Success series.