Deep Winter Greenhouses
Photo credit: Prototype Deep Winter Greenhouse designed by researcher Daniel Handeen of the University of Minnesota College of Design Center for Sustainable Building Research.
Construction begins in statewide Deep Winter Greenhouse campaign
DWG construction begins at Organic Consumers Association in Finland. Photo by David Abazs.
Construction has begun on the first of five prototype DWGs being built around the state as part of the statewide DWG campaign. In spring 2016, an advisory group selected five partners to build prototype DWGs for research and outreach purposes. In exchange for support for building the prototype DWG, partners agreed to provide access to their DWG for University research projects, public workshops, and demonstrations for a period of three years. Events will be announced here and on social media channels.
The statewide DWG campaign is being conducted by the University of Minnesota Extension Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships (RSDP) along with the Center for Sustainable Building Research (CSBR) at the University of Minnesota College of Design.
Partners include the Bemidji Community Food Shelf, Central Lakes College in Brainerd, Organic Consumers Association in Finland, Alternative Roots Farm in Madelia, and Lake City Catholic Worker Farm. Construction has begun on the Organic Consumers Association DWG, with others to follow in 2017. RSDP received more than 40 applications in response to the statewide DWG campaign, and an advisory committee selected one partner from each of RSDP's five regions in Greater Minnesota.
The campaign is made possible by support from the University's Institute on the Environment and a consortium of farm lending banks, including AgCountry Farm Credit Services, AgriBank, AgStar Financial Services, and United FCS. Mattson MacDonald Young provided the structural review and structural plans for the statewide DWG campaign prototype.
For more information, contact Greg Schweser, RSDP Associate Director for Local Foods and Sustainable Agriculture, at email@example.com.
Learn the basics of RSDP's statewide DWG campaign in our Media Fact Sheet, and check out recent media coverage:
- Greg Schweser discusses DWGs with KSTP primetime news
- Montevideo American-News talks with Researcher Dan Handeen of the College of Design’s Center for Sustainable Building Research about his DWG prototype
- Carol Ford shares her personal DWG journey with TEDxMinneapolis
Interested in exchanging resources and information with farmers, researchers, and community members interested in DWGs? Join the Deep Winter Producers Association (DWPA) Facebook group and like the DWPA Facebook page. To keep abreast of all of RSDP’s happenings, like us on Facebook (facebook.com/UofMNExtRSDP), follow us on Twitter (@RSDPMN), and subscribe to our newsletter.
What is a Deep Winter Greenhouse?
A Deep Winter Greenhouse (DWG) is a passive solar greenhouse designed to dramatically limit the amount of fossil fuel required to grow crops in northern latitudes. DWGs are oriented east-west with a south facing glazing wall specially angled depending on the latitude of the greenhouse to maximize solar energy on the shortest day of the year. Solar energy is stored in an underground thermal mass made up of an insulated rock bed that is covered with soil. Perforated drain tile that is laid out in the underground rock bed and distributed through the air through vents and fans that connect the air to the underground heat storage. Crops can be planted directly into the soil and through a system of suspended planters.
DWGs are utilized to grow cold hardy crops that thrive with minimal light throughout the middle of winter providing year-round production capacity for small scale farmers and gardeners. Crops well suited to DWG production include a variety of greens, herbs, broccoli, broccoli raab, kale, collards, Chinese cabbage, bok choy, and pea shoots. While fruiting crops like tomatoes, peppers, green beans, etc.. are not commonly grown in DWGs there is still lots of room for innovation and experimentation.
Deep Winter Greenhouse Resources
Design & Construction
Northlands Winter Greenhouse Manual
Carol Ford, Chuck Waibel
This is a link to the order form for the Northlands Winter Greenhouse Manual. This book provides detailed and easy to read construction specifications for building a Deep Winter Greenhouse in northern climates as well as production techniques for successfully growing crops.
Cold Climate Greenhouse Resource manual (PDF)
This guidebook highlights the successes and lessons learned by growers across the Midwest who have designed and built cold-climate greenhouses to grow produce during the winter with minimal reliance on fossil fuel-based heat.
ATTRA, National Center for Appropriate Technology
This site contains a large amount of useful information about solar greenhouse design.
Deep Winter Greenhouse Presentation (PDF)
This lightening talk presentation demonstrates the basic principles of Deep Winter Greenhouse technology using an 8' by 11' model.
Economics & Marketing
Deep Winter Greenhouse Enterprise Analysis (PDF)
This research report examines the ability of Deep Winter Greenhouses to be viable business models. Results are based on analyses of seven Deep Winter producers in Minnesota in the winter of 2014/2015.
Soil Nutrients in Organically Fertilized Potting Media under Greenhouse Conditions (PDF)
This poster displays results of analyses of various potting soil mixes for the common DWG crops of mizuna, arugula, and giant red mustard.
Day and Night Temperature Effects on Kale Morphology and Photosynthesis (PDF)
This poster highlights research results on day/night temperature effects on kale plant growth.
Deep Winter Greenhouse Producer Bios (PDF)
These case studies provide the stories of three different Deep Winter Greenhouse producers. Learn what inspired them to build a DWG, what drives them to produce, and learn lessons that only those with experience can tell.
Reinventing Year Round Local Food Production in Minnesota -- Mid Term Project Report (PDF)
This report highlights progress on a variety of research projects underway to look at the potential to maximize winter vegetable production. Results of analyses of day-night temperature effects on plant growth; vitamin c content of different fertilizer mixes; light response curves of kale; and vitamin c depletion rates are included.
Winter organic wonderland: Evaluating organic fertilizers for greenhouse production (PDF)
This poster was presented at the Midwest Organic and Sustainable Education Services 2015 annual conference. The poster highlights results from trials that examined the performance of different fertilizers used in winter production.
November 4, 2015 Deep Winter Greenhouse Research Seminar
This research seminar hosted by the UMN Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships highlights recent projects investigating Deep Winter Greenhouse technology. Greg Schweser provides an overview of RSDP Deep Winter Greenhouse projects, Liz Perkus discusses horticultural research into crop production, and Dan Handeen explains building performance and operation of this unique passive solar design.
Deep Winter Greenhouses
On the Road, Southwest Minnesota, University of Minnesota
A quick overview of Carol Ford's DWG that presents the general concept of the technology.
Connect with others
The Western Chapter of the Sustainable Farming Association of Minnesota is hosting the Deep Winter Producer Association networking group.
Like the Deep Winter Producers Association's Facebook Group
This Facebook group will enable those who are interested and/or operating Deep Winter Greenhouses to connect, post questions, and network.
Like the Deep Winter Producers Association's Facebook Page
Receive posts from the monitors of this Facebook page to keep up with current DWG news.