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Extension > Garden > Diagnose a problem > What's wrong with my plant? > Deciduous Trees > Hickory > Sap or liquid oozing from cracks in bark

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Hickory > Trunk/Branches > Sap or liquid oozing from cracks in bark

1 of 3
  • Hickory decline 1
  • Hickory decline 2
  • Hickory decline 3

Hickory decline
Ceratocystis smalleyi and Scolytus quadrispinosus

  • Leaves are wilted or undersized, thin canopy with dead branches
  • When bark is peeled back, numerous reddish brown oval cankers up to 1 ft. long can be seen
  • Bark surface often shows no symptoms, occasionally cracking or dark sunken area can be seen
  • Dark bleeding spots that appear in May or June indicate cankers below the bark
  • Groups of young green shoots (sprouts) often form along the trunk; these wilt and die within a year
  • Round 1/8th inch exit holes of hickory bark beetles on upper trunk
  • Larval galleries often visible in discolored sapwood
  • Trees can decline and die in as little as two years when beetle populations are high
2 of 3
  • Flatheaded appletree borer 1
  • Flatheaded appletree borer 2
  • Flatheaded appletree borer 3

Flatheaded appletree borer
Chrysobothris femorata

  • White froth usually oozes from cracks in bark
  • Dead branches in crown of older trees
  • Bark becomes sunken at site of injury; bark may crack later
  • Injured areas become larger and deform with annual attacks
  • Young and stressed trees are most at risk
  • Larvae are cream-colored, flattened bodies, about 1 inch long
  • Long tunnels under the bark girdle trees and cause structural weakness
  • More information on Flatheaded appletree borer...
3 of 3
  • Longhorned beetles 1
  • Longhorned beetles 2
  • Longhorned beetles 3

Longhorned beetles
e.g. Redheaded ash borer, Neoclytus acuminatus, and Living-hickory borer, Goes pulcher

  • Entrance holes at branch crotches can ooze sap and frass
  • Exit holes, ¼ - 3/8 inch wide, first appear in June
  • Galleries start in phloem and eventually enter into sapwood; generally not very serpentine
  • Larvae are ¾ to 1 inch long, cylindrical shaped bodies

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