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Extension > Food > Small Farms > Alternative and small-scale livestock systems > Swine > Designing feeding programs for natural and organic pork production > Suggested diets

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Designing feeding programs for natural and organic pork production

Suggested diets

Jerry Shurson, Mark Whitney, Lee Johnston, Bob Koehler, Robert Hadad, Dean Koehler, Wayne Martin, Sarah Schieck

Example diets for the growing pig, gestating sow, and lactating sow are provided in tables 2 through 7. These diets have been formulated to provide complete nutrition for the animal, without forage or pasture supplementation, and serve as only a few examples of how a variety of different ingredients might be used in various combinations for natural or organic pork production. The example diets are based on tabular values for total nutrient content of the selected ingredients and do not consider differences in nutrient digestibility of ingredients. Once one determines which ingredients will be used in a particular diet, final diet formulations should be calculated on a standardized ileal digestible amino acid and digestible phosphorus basis to ensure optimal pig performance.

Diets have been provided for summer and winter (assuming 32° F environmental temperature). During the winter months, pigs will consume additional feed to meet increased maintenance energy requirements, and therefore a lower amino acid concentration is necessary in the feed to meet the pig's amino acid requirement for growth. A variety of feed ingredients can be incorporated into swine diets, but correct formulation is key to ensuring animals satisfy their nutritional requirements. Individual ingredients will vary somewhat from nutrient levels assumed in these example diets, and therefore sampling and nutrient analysis of these feedstuffs should be conducted prior to formulation.

In addition, the pig's nutrient requirements will vary depending on genetics, environment, phase of growth, and age of animal. Producers should survey available ingredients that meet organic specifications, and then formulate diets utilizing those ingredients based on nutritional requirements for their operation and cost of nutrients supplied by the ingredients. Diets formulated to meet organic requirements may reduce performance as compared to traditional diets because of difficulties in meeting all nutritional needs. Producers are encouraged to use a diet formulation program or seek assistance from an experienced nutritionist when formulating diets

Table 2. Early grower diet formulations for organic swine production, assuming no pasture supplementation (30 lb. – 75 lb. pigs)
  Summer Winter
Ingredient, % 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Barley 61.10 71.10
Corn 54.40 68.65
Oats, naked 73.30 –; 83.70
Wheat 53.45 67.80
Canola 10.00 10.00
Peas, field 12.00 12.00
Soybeans, full-fat 42.20 33.50 28.00 19.00
Soybean meal, expelled 23.50 23.70 13.00 13.60
Dicalcium phosphate 1.40 1.20 1.20 1.10 1.50 1.35 1.40 1.20
Limestone 0.80 1.00 1.00 0.95 0.85 0.95 0.90 1.00
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Vit/TM premix 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Calculated nutrient composition
ME, kcal/kg 3417 3362 30331 3381 3373 3324 29561 3313
Crude protein, % 19.4 24.0 20.8 21.5 15.6 20.7 16.9 18.4
Lysine, % 1.08 1.07 1.13 1.07 0.80 0.80 0.86 0.80
Calcium, % 0.73 0.76 0.75 0.75 0.74 0.76 0.74 0.76
Phosphorus 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.66 0.63 0.65 0.64 0.64

1Low energy density may result in slower growth and poorer feed conversion than desired.

Table 3. Late grower diet formulations for organic swine production, assuming no pasture supplementation (75 lb. – 125 lb. pigs)
  Summer Winter
Ingredient, % 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Barley 69.85 77.30
Corn 65.00 74.90
Corn and cob meal 26.50 26.50
Oats, naked 51.40 58.90
Wheat 61.15 72.10
Canola 15.00 15.00
Peas, field 20.00 20.00
Soybeans, full-fat 31.90 21.00 21.90 10.00
Soybean meal, expelled 19.00 13.30 11.50 5.00
Dicalcium phosphate 1.25 1.25 1.25 0.90 1.35 1.25 1.35 0.95
Limestone 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Vit/TM premix 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Calculated nutrient composition
ME, kcal/kg 3392 3225 29801 3377 3362 3205 29141 3328
Crude protein, % 16.6 20.2 17.8 19.3 13.9 17.8 14.5 16.9
Lysine, % 0.88 0.88 0.94 0.88 0.68 0.68 0.74 0.68
Calcium, % 0.70 0.70 0.69 0.70 0.70 0.69 0.70 0.69
Phosphorus 0.60 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.60 0.59 0.62 0.59
Table 4. Early finisher diet formulations for organic swine production, assuming no pasture supplementation (125 lb. – 175 lb. pigs).
  Summer Winter
Ingredient, % 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Barley 69.85 77.30
Corn 72.30 80.70
Corn and cob meal 53.00 53.00
Oats, naked 27.50 33.50
Wheat 69.05 79.00
Canola 15.00 15.00
Peas, field 22.50 20.00
Soybeans, full-fat 25.00 13.50 16.50 3.50
Soybean meal, expelled 16.80 5.00 10.80
Dicalcium phosphate 0.75 0.85 0.75 0.45 0.95 0.85 0.75 0.55
Limestone 0.95 0.85 0.90 1.00 0.85 0.85 0.95 0.95
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Vit/TM premix 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Calculated nutrient composition
ME, kcal/kg 3388 3113 29321 3357 3362 3097 28861 3313
Crude protein, % 14.8 17.1 14.9 17.7 12.5 15.2 12.7 15.6
Lysine, % 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.56
Calcium, % 0.61 0.61 0.59 0.61 0.60 0.60 0.59 0.59
Phosphorus 0.49 0.50 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.48 0.50 0.50

1Low energy density may result in slower growth and poorer feed conversion than desired.

Table 5. Late finisher diet formulations for organic swine production, assuming no pasture supplementation (175 lb. – 250 lb. pigs).
  Summer Winter
Ingredient, % 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Barley 72.50 26.65 81.25
Corn 59.20 59.15
Corn and cob meal 72.20 72.10
Oats 20.00 10.00 25.80 13.75 20.00
Wheat 56.00 68.80
Peas, field 25.50 16.25
Soybeans, full-fat 18.30 15.00 12.50 8.75
Soybean meal, expelled 15.30 11.55
Dicalcium phosphate 0.55 0.75 0.55 0.35 0.65 0.85 0.55 0.45
Limestone 0.95 0.75 0.95 1.00 0.90 0.75 0.95 1.00
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Vit/TM premix 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Calculated nutrient composition
ME, kcal/kg 3234 2959 29061 3142 3176 2919 28801 3093
Crude protein, % 13.7 14.3 13.3 16.0 12.3 12.9 12.2 15.1
Lysine, % 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.53 0.54 0.54 0.54
Calcium, % 0.56 0.54 0.55 0.54 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55
Phosphorus 0.44 0.44 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.45 0.46 0.44

1Low energy density may result in slower growth and poorer feed conversion than desired.

Table 6. Gestation diet formulations for organic swine production, assuming no pasture supplementation.1
  Summer Winter
Ingredient, % 1 2 3 1 2 3
Barley 35.00 40.00
Corn 55.25 71.60
Corn and cob meal 66.75
Oats 25.00 20.50
Wheat 40.80 61.40 52.20
Alfalfa meal 10.00
Canola 15.00 12.50
Peas, field 15.00
Soybeans, full-fat 15.50 5.00 5.00 5.00
Sunflower seeds, full fat 10.00 18.10
Dicalcium phosphate 2.50 2.35 2.10 1.15 0.90 0.90
Limestone 0.75 0.85 0.50 0.75 0.90 0.75
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Vit/TM premix 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Calculated nutrient composition
ME, kcal/kg 3130 3000 3180 3181 3038 3172
Crude protein, % 12.8 14.6 15.6 10.1 13.3 11.1
Lysine, % 0.59 0.62 0.57 0.38 0.45 0.38
Calcium, % 0.91 0.91 0.92 0.59 0.60 0.61
Phosphorus 0.79 0.80 0.79 0.51 0.53 0.52

1Assumes a feeding level of 4.5 lb./sow/day for summer and 7.5 lb./sow/day for winter. Initial sow weight of 350 lbs., an additional 40 lb. gestation weight gain, and expected litter size of 10 pigs.

Table 7. Lactation diet formulations for organic swine production.1
  Summer
Ingredient, % 1 2 3
Barley 57.05
Corn 71.30
Oats, naked 67.90
Alfalfa meal 10.00
Peas, field 10.00
Soybeans, full-fat 29.00
Soybean meal, expelled 18.50 24.50
Dicalcium phosphate 2.05 2.10 2.45
Limestone 0.90 0.50 0.75
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50
Vit/TM premix 0.50 0.50 0.50
Calculated nutrient composition
ME, kcal/kg 3045 3176 3330
Crude protein, % 18.5 22.6 17.9
Lysine, % 1.00 0.98 0.94
Calcium, % 0.91 0.91 0.91
Phosphorus 0.79 0.79 0.81

1Assumes no winter farrowing, unless sow and litter are housed indoors.

Read next: Forages in swine diets and pasture systems

 

2016

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