Skip to Main navigation Skip to Left navigation Skip to Main content Skip to Footer

University of Minnesota Extension

Extension > Food > Food Safety > Sanitation and Illness > Take food allergies seriously

Print Icon Email Icon Share Icon

Sanitation and Illness


Take food allergies seriously

LouAnn Jopp

Eating is an enjoyable experience for most of us, but it can be frightening and even life threatening for people with food allergies.

A harmful reaction to a food can be a result of a food allergy or a food intolerance. Allergies and intolerances are not the same. Food intolerances, such as lactose intolerance, are often due to an enzyme deficiency and cause problems with digestion. An intolerance does not involve the immune system. A true food allergy is the body's negative reaction to a particular food protein. It occurs when the immune system mistakenly believes a food is harmful.

Any food has the potential to cause a reaction in a person who is allergic to that food, but only eight foods are responsible for 90 percent of all food allergic reactions. They are: milk, eggs, peanuts, soy, wheat, tree nuts (walnuts, almonds), fish and shellfish (shrimp, lobster).

The number of Americans with food allergies has increased from approximately 6 million to 12 million in recent years. Although there are many theories, we do not yet fully understand the causes of this increase. Peanut allergy in children has doubled in the last 5 years!

Food allergy symptoms can range from a tingling in the mouth, swelling of lips, tongue and throat, difficulty breathing, hives, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea and loss of consciousness, to death. 150 to 250 Americans die each year from food allergy reactions.

To prevent a reaction, avoid:

Also remember:

Presently, there is no cure for food allergies. The only way to avoid a reaction is a complete avoidance of the allergy-causing food.


Brandt, K. (2011). Food allergies: What you need to know. Food Safety eNews, 4(3), University of Minnesota Extension.

Craig, B. (2014). Allergies on the rise: Operators respond, Food Safety Magazine. In eDigest.

Related Resources

The Food Allergy and Research Education (FARE) — Provides evidence-based education and resources.

Food Allergen Training for Food Service Employees — Online interactive course for all food employees.

Reviewed by Suzanne Driessen 2016

  • © Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
  • The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. Privacy