Standards and expectations
Sandra L. Christenson, Ph.D, Professor — College of Education and Human Development; and Cathryn Peterson, Teacher — Armstrong High School, Robbinsdale, MN
Revised June 2013 by Kathleen A. Olson, Program Director — Partnering for school success.
Standards and expectations
Standards and expectations refer to the level of expected performance held by key adults for youth. Student success in school is facilitated when parents and teachers clearly state expectations for student performance, set specific goals and standards for desired behavior and performance, discuss expectations with youth, emphasize children's effort when completing tasks, and ensure youth understand the consequences for not meeting expectations.
What Do We Know?
Selected Research Findings
Academic achievement is positively correlated with realistic, high parent expectations for children's school performance (Amato & Ochiltree, 1986). For example, Entwisle and Hayduk (1988) found that parents' estimates of their children's ability had long-term effects on achievement. Scott-Jones (1984) found that realistic and accurate parent expectations (i.e., those close to the child's actual performance) were associated with children's superior performance on cognitive tasks.
Fan and Chen (1999) found a medium effect size for parent involvement on student achievement; the effect size was greater for general achievement measures than for grades and test scores in a specific subject. They also noted that some forms of parent involvement have a more noticeable effect on achievement. Parents’ aspirations and expectations, especially for adolescents, had the strongest relationship with achievement. Although parents’ supervision of youth at home had the weakest effect, it was not considered unimportant. Rather the researchers argued that parents impose more controls when students are not doing well in school.
Parent expectations may have an indirect effect on academic performance through the impact on parent behaviors such as contact with the school and positive reinforcement of schoolwork and performance (Seginer, 1986). Clark (1983) demonstrated that both parents' attitudes about schoolwork and behavior in supporting their adolescents' schoolwork were family influences that differentiated low- and high-achieving high school students who were African-American and poor.
Children's personal beliefs and expectations about their achievement are often highly correlated with those held by their parents (Johnson, Brookover, & Farrell, 1989; Wigfield, 1983). In one study, children's beliefs were more directly related to children's own expectations than the children's past performances (Parsons, Adler, Karzala, & Meece, 1982).
The degree to which parents hold expectations or how parents communicate their expectations to children has been found to differ as a function of social strata and parental occupation. Cohen (1987) showed that "white collar" parents tend to influence their children's achievement through stated expectations and modeling, while "blue collar" parents tend to influence children through stated expectations only. While parents' education-related beliefs were significantly associated with their achievement-fostering behaviors in the home, for low-income African-American third and fourth graders, parent beliefs and expectations were more strongly linked to child achievement in reading and math than were parents reported instruction in the home (Halle, Kurtz-Costes, & Mahoney, 1997). There is some evidence for differences in the types of parent expectations related to school and career. Scott-Jones (1987) found that parents of low-achieving, low-income African-American children emphasized good behavior more than learning. Interestingly, they held high career aspirations for their children, even when they were in early elementary grades (e.g., doctor, lawyer, nurse). Parents of higher-achieving children emphasized learning more than behavior, and indicated they wanted their children to achieve their personal career goals.
Parent expectations are influenced by the reasons parents ascribe for their children's performance in school. In general, the use of effort attributions (i.e., "you did well because you tried hard and practiced a lot") to explain school performance is strongly related to positive achievement outcomes (Stevenson & Lee, 1990).
In their study of family-based expectations for Caucasian, Asian-American, African-American and Hispanic adolescents, Steinberg, Dornbusch, and Brown (1992) found strong ethnic and cultural differences related to students' beliefs about the consequences of negative school failure. Asian-American students overwhelmingly believed a bad education would have negative effects on finding a good job, and African-American and Hispanic students predicted few negative consequences of a bad education. Although students across all ethnic groups reported that their parents valued education, African-American and Hispanic students "devoted less time to homework, perceived their parents as having lower standards, and were less likely to believe academic success comes from working hard" (pp.726). The researchers concluded that high parental expectations are necessary but not sufficient conditions for school performance. Expectations for success and negative consequences of failure must be translated into achievement-related action.
It has also been shown that: (a) parental knowledge of children's current schoolwork and school activities affects parents' ability to set realistic expectations for children's performance (Kellaghan, Sloane, Alvarez, & Bloom, 1993), (b) parent expectations of youth for post-secondary outcomes is associated positively with academic performance (Clark, 1993; Eagle, 1989); (c) parent expectations for children to read and to learn math and to request verbal responses from their children are associated with better academic performance (Hess & Holloway, 1984); (d) parents' verbal expectations for continued achievement and urging children to work hard in school (i.e., defined as press for achievement) are strongly related to student achievement (Clark, 1988; Marjoribanks, 1979); and (e) parent expectations for deferral of immediate gratification to achieve long range goals are correlated with more successful school outcomes (Walberg, 1984).
In a seminal, nationwide study completed for the U.S. Department of Education, McDill, Rigsby, and Meyers (1969) demonstrated that the degree of parental and community interest in quality education was a critical factor in explaining the impact of the high school environment on the achievement and educational aspirations of students. Data from over 20,000 students, from diverse backgrounds, in 20 public schools, in eight states revealed that parent and community involvement had a substantial, significant effect on the math achievement and educational aspirations of students even when controlling for ability and family educational background.
The importance of parental attitudes and expectations for adolescents across four ethnic groups: African Americans, Asians, Hispanics, and Whites has been demonstrated. Using NELS data, 12 variables (background — gender, SES, prior achievement; school-related aspects of parental involvement — parental involvement, communication, and expectations; students’ perceptions — of parental involvement, communication, and expectations; and student variables — time spent on homework, self-concept, and academic expectations) were examined to account for achievement differences in 14 year olds in grades 6 or 9. The total model accounted for 74-78% of variance in achievement, regardless of ethnic and cultural background. Students’ prior achievement was the best predictor followed by parental attitudes and expectations and student perception of parental expectations for the four ethnic groups (Patrikakou, 1997).
The importance of parental attitudes and expectations for adolescents with learning disabilities has been demonstrated. Students’ prior achievement had the strongest direct effect on achievement; however, student expectations for academic achievement, which are mediated by perception of parental expectations and parental expectations, were a strong predictor of achievement (Patrikakou, 1996).
Family expectations and supervision (e.g., priority of schoolwork over TV and recreation, expectations for performance, correct use of language, monitoring of time, parental knowledge about child progress) have been identified as one pattern of family life that contributes to a child’s ability to learn in school. These family practices create positive habits of learning for students; the habits of learning enhance teachers’ effectiveness. Parents set standards for their children, and these standards determine what children view as important. The internalization of these parental values may motivate students to pursue the same goals that are valued by teachers at school (Wentzel, 1997). Setting expectations is considered a challenge for parents; however, focusing on the child’s attitudes toward school and study habits rather than only grades, especially for adolescents, is beneficial (Redding, 2000). With respect to enhancing achievement motivation for adolescents, it is critical to move beyond grades because some students can do the work with little effort and others work very hard and obtain a lower grade; student effort must be included (Bempechat, 2000).
Family support and involvement are associated with student engagement. Statistically significant home correlates of school completion include the presence of study aids, high educational expectations and aspirations, and parental monitoring and participation (Rumberger, 1995).
Clear communication of high teacher expectations for student performance is positively associated with better academic outcomes for regular and special education students (Brophy & Good, 1970; 1986; Kagan, 1992). Research has shown that clearly stated teacher expectations and specific teacher behaviors, such as providing opportunity for all students to respond and matching the level and type of teacher questions to student skill level, are both important for establishing classroom expectations for students.
Kagan (1992) found that student performance is higher in classrooms where teacher expectations for what the student is to learn (i.e., lesson goal) and what the student is to do (i.e., instructions) are explicitly stated. Similarly, Anderson (1985) concluded that students perform better in classrooms where the instructional goal is clearly communicated because the goal provides directions to the student (Good & Brophy, 1984) and provides the basis for evaluation and mastery (Bloom, 1976). Student ability to understand the assigned task or lesson goal has been demonstrated by Peterson, Swing, Stark, and Waas (1984) to be a better predictor of student achievement than classroom observers' ratings of students' time-on-task behavior.
The students' socioeconomic (SES) background seems to be a factor to consider when communicating and reinforcing standards and expectations. Teachers in classrooms with students of high SES backgrounds made gains when they challenged their students and communicated high expectations. These teachers occasionally provided students with symbolic rewards for positive behavior and criticism for inappropriate behaviors. On the other hand, teachers in classrooms with low SES students motivated their students with gentle praise and encouragement and used symbolic rewards (Brophy & Good, 1986).
Research has demonstrated that student achievement is improved when instructors hold high expectations for all students, regardless of student achievement level. In a major California intervention research project, teachers from 30 school districts implemented 15 teaching practices aimed at providing low achievers with greater opportunity to respond, clearer articulation of lesson goals and objectives, and more specific feedback. Students in the treatment classes showed statistically significant achievement gains over their low achieving peers in control classes. In addition to academic gains, a significant reduction in absenteeism and discipline referrals for the treatment classes was found (Kerman, 1982).
Fuchs, Fuchs, and Deno (1985) found that goal ambitiousness, not goal mastery, was associated positively with student achievement for special education students with emotional/behavioral disorders, learning disabilities, and mental retardation. They concluded that teachers need to establish relatively ambitious expectations to stimulate greater achievement and to reconceptualize how and why they use these goals. In a comprehensive school-wide, school reform program, Levin (1987) has demonstrated achievement gains for low achievers with the use of an accelerated curriculum.
Eccles and colleagues (1993) found that levels of teacher self-efficacy affected student performance. Students who in seventh grade had math teachers who demonstrated low levels of self-efficacy, ended seventh grade with lower expectations for themselves in math, lower perceptions of their performance in math, and felt that math was more difficult, when compared to students who experienced a change from low to high efficacy teachers, or experienced no change in teacher efficacy. Likewise, students who moved from teachers offering low levels of support, to teachers offering higher levels of support, demonstrated a congruent change in the value that they attached to math. Overall, studies of successful middle schools/junior highs have pointed toward the influence of developmentally appropriate and positive learning environments in student achievement. These schools are characterized by higher teacher efficacy, opportunity for meaningful student participation in classroom decisions, and positive teacher-student relationships. It seems that students in schools where these variables are present, experience less decline in intrinsic motivation and there is less student misconduct.
Studies have found that affluent neighbors may have a negative impact on youth from disadvantaged families. The youth from the more affluent families may set academic standards that are so high that they result in discouragement for low income youth. In addition, in communities where 5% or fewer of the workers hold professional or managerial jobs, dropping out of high school is likely to occur for both Black and White students (Duncan, 1994).
Focus Group Comments
- "Expect us to do well, but if we make a mistake or get a bad grade, don't yell at us, but at the same time, don't just not care." (Consistent Middle School Student)
- "My parents expect good grades from me, she doesn't like pay me or anything. That makes me feel like I did it for money and not for myself." (Consistent High School Student)
- "Giving us challenging assignments that make us take what we have learned and make us take it to the next level." (Consistent Middle School Student)
How Do We Do This?
Expectations and Accountability
- Parents set high, realistic expectations (e.g., based on present skill level and strengths).
- Parents' expectations for their child's school performance have been discussed (e.g., set goals together).
- Parents hold their child accountable for his/her actions.
- Parents have communicated how they expect their child to behave while in school.
- The child understands the consequences for not meeting the expectations and standards.
- Parents communicate to their child that attendance and participation in school are important.
- Parents are accepting and firm.
- Clear consistent limits and guidelines about school work and behavior are communicated and reinforced with the child.
- Parents communicate that effort, not luck, will result in improved school performance.
- Parents and their child discuss the importance and value of education (e.g., set clear academic goals with their child, encourage their child to take tougher courses in school).
- Parents explain to their child why school is important (e.g., talk to the child about how school learning is related to future goals/endeavors).
- Parents help their child set realistic goals and provide their child with regular feedback and support regarding progress (e.g., reviewing homework and tests together).
Encouragement and Support
- Parents support their child and encourage him/her to strive for good grades (e.g., have your child teach you one thing he/she learned in school each day).
- Parent expectations for their child are focused on progress and achievement.
- Parents demonstrate and voice their belief that their child can meet the standards and expectations.
- Parents encourage their child to take more challenging course work.
- Standards have been communicated clearly to the student so he/she understands the expectation (e.g., student understands he/she is responsible for correcting and completing unfinished work).
- The student is expected to listen and be actively involved.
- The student is expected to respond when called on.
- Expectations are based on the level of student performance and are measurable and attainable (e.g., write specific behavioral objectives).
- The student understands that he/she is responsible to complete/correct unfinished assignments.
- The student understands that assignments are to be neat and turned in on time.
- The student is provided with opportunities to answer questions, offer ideas and take an active role in the class (e.g., the teacher calls on a variety of students).
- The student understands the consequences of not meeting the expectations and standards (e.g., lower grades, calls home to parents, etc.).
- The teacher explicitly tells the students, prior to the lesson, the objectives and goals of what is to be learned and how the task will be completed (e.g., students are provided with advance organizers and written instructions).
- How the student is expected to use his/her time has been clearly communicated (e.g., the teacher provides the student with time limits and guidelines to facilitate completing a project).
- The student understands what the teacher expects in order to demonstrate mastery of knowledge and skills (e.g., being able to have 90% accuracy while working independently).
- The student understands the expectation of not only task completion, but accuracy as well.
- The teacher helps the student to set goals to increase motivation and to provide feedback.
- The community demonstrates that there is a commitment to the development of youth.
- Norms for expected, appropriate behavior are generated from the social structure of the community.
- Members of the community share common values.
- The community sets high standards for public behavior.
- The community encourages families to provide youth with clear, concise standards and rules for appropriate/inappropriate behavior.
- The community values and places priority on learning and education.
- The community encourages post high school education for all youth.
Amato, P. R., & Ochiltree, G. (1986). Family resources and the development of child competence. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 47-56.
Anderson, L. W. (1985). Concerns for appropriate instrumentation in research on classroom teaching. Evaluation in Education, 8(2), 133-152.
Bempechat, J. (2000). Getting our kids back on track. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bempechat, J. Graham, S. E., & Jimenez, N. V. (1999). The socialization of achievement in poor and minority students: A comparative study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30(2), 139-158.
Bloom, B. S. (1976). Human characteristics and student learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Brophy, J. E. & Good, T. L. (1970). Teachers' communication of differential expectations for children's classroom performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 61, 365-374.
Brophy, J. E. & Good, T. L. (1986). Teacher behavior and student achievement. In M.L. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed.) (pp. 328-375). New York: MacMillan.
Clark, R. M. (1983). Family life and school achievement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Clark, R. M. (1993). Homework-focused parenting practices that positively affect student achievement, In N.F. Chavkin (Ed.), Families and School in a Pluralistic Society, (pp. 85-105). Albany: State University of New York Press.
Clark, R. M. (1988) Parents as providers of linguistic and social capital. Educational Horizons, 66(2), 93-95.
Cohen, J. (1987). Parents as educational model and definers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 339-349.
Duncan, G. J. (1994, November). Families and neighbors as sources of disadvantage on the schooling decision of white and black adolescence. American Journal of Education, 103(1), 120-153.
Eagle, E. (1989, March). Socioeconomic status, family structure, and parental involvement: The correlates of achievement. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & Mac Iver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents' experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist, 48(2), 90-101.
Entwisle, D. R. & Hayduk, L. A. (1988). Lasting effects of elementary school. Sociology of Education, 61, 147-159.
Fan, X., & Chen, M. (1999). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation; Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Deno, S. L. (1985). Importance of goal ambitiousness and goal mastery to student achievement. Exceptional Children, 52, 63-71.
Good, T. L. & Brophy, J. E. (1984). Looking in classrooms (3rd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.
Halle, T. G., Kurtz-Costes, B., & Mahoney, J. L. (1997). Family influences on school achievement in low-income, African-American children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(3), 527-537.
Hess, R. D. & Holloway, S. D. (1984). Family and school as educational institutions. In R. D. Parke, R. M. Emde, H.P. McAdoo, & G. P. Sackett (Eds.), Reviewing child development research: Vol. 7: The family (pp. 179-222). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Johnson, F. L., Brookover, W. B., & Farrell, W. C. (1989, April). The effects of principals', teachers' and students' perceptions of parents' role, interest and expectation for their children's education on student academic achievement. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco.
Kagan, D. M. (1992). Implications of research on teacher beliefs. Educational Psychologist, 27(1), 65-90.
Kellaghan, T., Sloane, K., Alvarez, B. & Bloom, B.S. (1993). The home environment & school learning: Promoting parental involvement in the education of children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kerman, S. (1982). Teacher expectations and student achievement. Workshop Handout: TESA Training.
Levin, H. (1987). Accelerated school for disadvantaged students. Educational Leadership, 44(6), 19-21.
Marjoribanks, K. (1979). Family environments. In H.J. Walberg (Ed.), Educational Environments and Effects (pp. 15-37). Berkely, CA: McCutchan.
McDill, E. L., Rigsby, L., & Meyers, E. (1969). Educational climates of high schools: Their effects and sources. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 030-205)
Parsons, J. E., Adler, T. F., Karala, C. M., & Meece, J. L. (1982). Socialization of achievement attitudes and beliefs: Parental influences. Child Development, 53, 310-321.
Patrikakou, E. N. (1996). Investigating the academic achievement of adolescents with learning disabilities: A structural modeling approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(3), 435-450.
Patrikakou, E. N. (1997). A model or parental attitudes and the academic achievement of adolescents. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 31(1), 7-26.
Peterson, P. L., Swing, S.R., Stark, K. D., & Waas, G. A. (1984). Students' cognitions and time on task during mathematics instruction. American Educational Research Journal, 21, 487-515.
Redding, S. (2000). Parents and learning. Educational Practices series — 2. Geneva, Switzerland: International Bureau of Education.
Rumberger, R. W. (1995). Dropping out of middle school: A multilevel analysis of students and schools. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 583-625.
Scott-Jones, D. (1984). Family influences on cognitive development and school achievement. Review of Research in Education, 11, 259-304.
Scott-Jones, D. (1987). Mothers as teachers in families of high- and low-achieving low income Black first-graders. Journal of Negro Education, 56, 21-34.
Seginer, R. (1986). Mothers' behavior and sons' performance: An initial test of an academic achievement path model. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 32(2), 153-166.
Steinberg, L., Dornbusch, S. M., & Brown, B. B. (1992). Ethnic differences in adolescent achievement. American Psychologist, 47, 723-729.
Stevenson, H. W. & Lee, S. (1990). Contexts of achievement: A study of American, Chinese, and Japanese children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 55, 1-106.
Walberg, H. J. (1984). Families as partners in educational productivity. Phi Delta Kappan, 65, 397-400.
Wentzel, K. R. (1997). Student motivation in middle school: The role of perceived pedagogical caring. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 411-419
Wigfield, A. (1983, April). Students' perceptions of their parents' beliefs. Paper presented as part of a symposium entitled "Social Influences on Students' Achievement, Beliefs, and Behavior" at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Detroit, MI. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 235-926)
Setting Limits for Responsive Discipline — Provide a sense of security to your children by setting limits.
Structure — Review what the research says about structure, and how parents and teachers can use structure to facilitate children's school success. Part of the Research on the factors for school success series.