Overindulgence: The Test of Four
Jean Illsley Clarke, Connie Dawson, and David J. Bredehoft
December 2014; reviewed by Ellie M. McCann, Extension Educator — Family Resiliency.
Your child wants a cell phone. Should you buy one for him or her? Knowing how much to buy for your children is not always easy. It's especially hard when the advertising industry spends billions of dollars telling everyone that they can't live without a particular product. And some ads specifically target children.
Why Use the Test of Four
Watch one example: Walking Through the Test of Four
The Test of Four tool helps parents and children learn about what is enough. It guides adults and children towards personal responsibility, and self-control; it encourages clear thinking and good decision making.
How the Test of Four Works
The Test of Four consists of asking questions in four key categories (see graphic) about a potential overindulgence situation. Use the test for one problem at a time. A "yes" response to questions in any of the four categories is a signal that overindulgence exists or might occur.
- Developmental tasks?
- Will doing or giving this keep my child from learning what he or she needs to learn at this age? In other words, might this prevent my child from meeting a developmental goal — from completing a developmental "task?" Or might it harm the child in some other way?
- Family resources?
- Will doing or giving this use a disproportionate amount of family resources, including money, space, time, energy, or attention, to meet the wants (not the needs) of one or more of our children?
- Whose needs?
- Will doing or giving this benefit you, the parents, more than your child?
- Will doing or giving this insist that your child focus on activities you like but are counter to the child's interests and abilities?
- Possible harm?
- Will doing or giving this deplete or otherwise harm others, the community, or the environment in some way?
Examples of When to Use the Test of Four
- Should my child get a treat or toy every time we go shopping?
- Is my child doing his or her share of household tasks?
- If I want my child to succeed, should I do my child's homework?
- Should I buy new shoes for my child or a coat I need for myself?
Using the Test of Four with Children and Teens
A Guide for Parents
There are times where parents need to be in charge and make decisions for children, whatever their age. Decisions should be based on the problem, as well as the age and needs of the child. The Test of Four helps guide parents in decision making. Questions in the four categories help parents set rules that are healthy for the whole family.
Empowering the Child
Invite children age 6 and over into family decision making using the Test of Four, whether it's deciding on the amount of time on media screens, what to do on the weekend, or whether to play house league sports vs. traveling sports. The Test of Four is not only a tool for parents — it's a tool to help children learn to make responsible, well thought-out decisions.
The Beauty of the Test of Four
The beauty of the Test of Four is that it helps families decide what is best for them. What looks like overindulgence in one family may not be overindulgence in another.
Let's Try It
Still wondering what to do about that cell phone? Let's assess the issue using the Test of Four.
- Developmental tasks? Might a phone prevent the child from completing school work, getting enough sleep, or helping with household tasks? Is your child ready to learn to make smart choices about texting, sending pictures, and calling?
- Family resources? Would an additional monthly cost of a cell phone strain the family budget? Would it take too much of the parents' time and energy to monitor proper use of the cell phone to ensure the safety of their child and others with whom they may be communicating? Would replacing a lost/stolen or broken phone be cost prohibitive?
- Whose needs? Would having the cell phone benefit the adult more than the child?
- Possible harm? Might your child hurt another child by bullying, sending inappropriate pictures, or texting while driving?
Clarke, J. I. (n.d.). How to detect overindulgence: The test of four.
Clarke, J. I., Dawson, C., & Bredehoft, D. (2014). How much is too much? Raising likeable, responsible, respectful children from toddlers to teens in an age of overindulgence (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Da Capo Press.
Test of Four Poster (PDF) — Download, print, and hang this full-page poster in a prominent area as a reminder of the four questions to ask.
Test of Four Visuals (PDF) — Download, print, and cut out small reminders of the four questions to put in your wallet, on your refrigerator, or in the car.
Parenting In the Age of Overindulgence Online Course — This free online course will help you learn how to identify if something is "too much" and get strategies to avoid overindulgence.
5 Tips for Parents to Avoid the Damaging Effects of Overindulgence — Jean Illsley Clarke discusses the concept of overindulgence while offering five tips on how to recognize it and what to do about it.