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Coping with Stress

Man looking worried

After a Natural Disaster: Ending Isolation

Ronald L. Pitzer, Family Sociologist and Professor — Family Social Science; and Sharon M. Danes, Extension Specialist and Professor — Family Social Science

Revised April 2009 by the author (Sharon M. Danes); Reviewed March 2010.

Many people who survive a disaster experience a strong desire to separate from others. They withdraw, even from the people they are closest to. It's hard to face people when even a casual "How are you doing?" can be difficult to answer. But ongoing avoidance of family, friends, and strangers can make everything harder for everyone. It's an odd irony that we're most likely to turn away from people right when we need them most. Overcoming the tendency to isolate takes real strength and discipline. These guidelines may help.

There are ways to break the isolation:


It takes courage to reveal what you are thinking and feeling to someone else. This can be especially true when you are feeling ashamed or if you believe you aren't supposed to talk about your feelings or troubles. But talking is worth it. Talking can strengthen relationships, clear up misunderstandings, and bring other perspectives to our problems.


Make a list of four things you'd like to talk about. Look at your list and see which one feels safest to talk about. Think of one person you trust enough to talk with about that one issue and then talk to that person.

When you don't talk, other people try to guess what you're thinking and feeling. This can result in serious misunderstandings that can have disastrous outcomes. For instance, a wife could think her husband is considering divorce; a child could think her dad doesn't love her; a son could think his dad is going to leave them.

Help with Decision-Making and Communicating Under Stress

When you have experienced loss, decision-making can be difficult at times. That is not at all unusual. Read this publication to learn about how humans respond to unplanned or unexpected change: Change: Loss, Opportunity and Resilience (PDF)

When you are under a great deal of stress and pressure, you have to take even more care in how you talk and how you listen. To help you do that, review Communicating under pressure​.

Ask for Help

Research shows that people who see being able to ask for help as a strength come through disasters stronger and healthier than those who view seeking help as a weakness.

Some people say they are "too proud" to ask for help. Yet even those people probably have asked for help at one time or another. Somehow when a crisis occurs we can forget there are people ready and willing to help us.

Think of all the people you know whom you could call on for help. In each of the following situations, list someone you could go to for support. What kind of support would you want from them? What response could you expect?

Are there certain people or places you go to when you are feeling down? List them.

Are there certain people or places you go to when you are feeling up? List them.

List of all the ways your friends and family have helped you over the past few months. This can be a small task, like driving your kids to a ball game, or a large task, like helping you.

We probably ask for help from our friends, family, and neighbors more often than we realize. We ask for help with baby-sitting, bringing in the crops, moving to a new home, building a deck. It isn't too much to expect that those same friends, neighbors, and family members who help us on a day-to-day basis may be very willing to help us during times of crisis. Look at your list and mark the names of people you would feel most comfortable about asking for disaster-related help.

Can you see a history of support from certain people? Can you call on them now? Most people call first on family when they need help. But friends, neighbors, and local community agencies or churches can also be there for you. To realize how much support is available, consider the following types of help that can be readily given by family, friends, neighbors, and local agencies.

With your family, make a list of all the areas in which you need help and support. Pick one area from the list and discuss it with your family: What do you need now, next week, and during upcoming months. Where you will find help: from friends, extended family, public agencies, your church. Which family members will make the contacts needed to get you the help you require?

Where can you go for assistance? Using the following table put an "X" in each area where you can get support. For example, you may mark "spouse" for emotional support and companionship, "counselor" for emotional support and information, and "other relatives" for tangible aid.

Sources of Support Tangible Help Emotional Support Information Companionship
Other Relatives      
Work Associates      
Church Members      
Social Service Agency      
Extension Office      

Which of these supports would you or your spouse use?

Be with People

Things won't return to normal overnight. You and other family members may now be in the habit of isolation. To end your isolation, recognize what you and/or others do to cut yourself off from friends and family.

Isolating behavior can be anything that builds walls between you and your family or you and your community, including:

You have survived a disaster. That doesn't mean your life is over or that you don't deserve to be happy again. Get back to doing things you enjoy with friends and family. Re-establish the routines of your life. Make commitments and keep them.

Make a list with your family of:

Help during Tough Financial Times

After disasters, help is often needed on a number of fronts. And, each person or family is different depending upon their circumstances. Check out the 17 fact sheets on the Getting through tough times webpage for information or suggestions that might help you.

Helping People Who Have Isolated Themselves

People who isolate themselves often need an incentive to get back into social routines. Think about what routines they have dropped that you could help them recover. Can you pick them up for church? Drive them to the grocery store? Meet them for coffee?

Think of someone you know who is isolating himself. Make a list of what you could do to help him get back into his or her routine. Commit to doing at least one of those things this week.

People who have isolated themselves are very likely to need help and are very unlikely to ask for it. Helping someone through a crisis may require that you offer help several times and that you be there when your friend is ready to accept your help. Isolated people may not respond the first time you offer your assistance. Don't give up. Keep offering help. To get ideas on how you might help others, think about the way you yourself have been helped.


Think about the last time someone helped you. Write down:

  • Who helped you?
  • What they did to help?

Now think of someone you know who needs help. List specific ways you could help them. Commit to doing at least one thing this week.

Be a Good Listener

Getting an isolated person to share his thoughts and feelings may take time and some finesse. If someone is not accustomed to talking about his or her problems, it may be difficult for him or her to talk. Here are some tips on getting someone to talk and being a good listener.

Ask one question or a series of questions about how he or she is feeling, such as:

The person you are talking to might answer with only one word like "Awful." The conversation could end there. You might encourage him or her to continue talking by saying:

Once someone does start to talk, however, your only job is to listen and to encourage her or her to continue to talk. Just by listening, you'll show that you care and are sympathetic. Later, when the person has gotten through expressing his fears and pain, he or she may be ready to look for solutions. At this point, you could offer advice. Advice may be worthwhile, but only after the other person has had an opportunity to talk out his or her feelings.

If the other person falls silent for a while, don't worry, just wait it out. You could give him or her the time in silence to think of how he or she wants to respond. Most people are uncomfortable with silence, but it gives our friends the opportunity to gather their thoughts and the courage to say what they want to say. It also gives them the freedom to choose whether they want to discuss their situation further.

At some point, the other person may say something like "It's really hard." Now is a good time for you to let him or her know that you understands. Saying "I know just how you feel" is rarely helpful. By stating how you think the other person is feeling can be very helpful however, as long as you are really listening and not simply making up emotions for the other person.

When you do the things noted above, you are practicing reflective listening. Before you call on a friend to offer support, practice reflective listening.


Practice reflective listening with the following situations. The goal is simply to provide an understanding response in order to encourage the speaker to continue talking. You might practice it with a partner to see if your response is helpful. For each situation, first identify the feelings of the speaker. Second, summarize the situation.


Bob: "Things are really hard. I don't know what to do to make them better."

Craig: "You are feeling overwhelmed (identify feeling) because you've gone through a terrible experience and you don't know what to do." (identify situation)


A man: "I can't face my father. He just won't understand why I lost money in the business."

Your response: "You are feeling ... because ..."

A child: "I must have done something wrong. No one will talk to me. It must be my fault."

Your response: "You are feeling...because..."

This project was originally funded by FEMA through the Minnesota Department of Human Services - Mental Health Division, in cooperation with CLIMB (Creative Learning Ideas for Mind and Body) and the University of Minnesota Extension.

Related resources

School success — Builds strong parent-child relationships through education and collaboration.

Extreme Weather — Extension resources for floods, wind damage, winter impacts, and more.

After a natural disaster: Coping with loss — The five stages of grieving.

After a Natural Disaster: Managing Anger — Change how you see things, say how you feel, and calm down.

After a Natural Disaster: Talking with Children — Accept kids' feelings, be honest and reassuring, and let them help.

Change: Loss, Opportunity, and Resilience Online Presentation — When change is loss, people grieve.


Danes, S.M. & Stumme, P. (2001). Adjusting to Suddenly Reduced Income, University of Minnesota Extension Publication 06499.

Gottlieb, B (ed) (1981). Social Networks and Social Support. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Hughes, Robert, Jr. (1985). Support for Families: The Social Network. Urbana-Champaign IL: University of Illinois Cooperative Extension Service.

Nardi, Peter M (ed) (1992). Men's Friendships. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Pitzer, Ronald L. (1988). Friends in Need Are Friends Indeed. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota Extension Service.

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