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Extension > Environment > Trees and woodlands > Managing oak woodlands

Woodland stewardship: a practical guide for midwestern landowners

Woodland Stewardship: a Practical Guide for Midwestern Landowners cover

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Melvin J. Baughman, Charles R. Blinn, John G. DuPlissis, Eli Sagor, Angela S. Gupta, David Drake, Scott Craven, David S. Wilsey, Julie Miedtke, Karen Potter-Witter, Bill Cook, Paul Doruska, Diomy S. Zamora, Michael R. Reichenbach, Gary Wyatt

Copyright © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.

Contents

Chapter 1: Preparing a Woodland Stewardship Plan

  • What Is a Woodland Stewardship Plan?
  • Work with a Forester
  • Forest Stewardship Plan Basics
    • 1. Identify Your Goals, 2. Inventory and Evaluate Your Property, 3. Develop Stand Objectives and Management Alternatives, 4. Assess Management Constraints, 5. Choose Management Practices and List Them on a Schedule, 6. Keep Good Records

Chapter 2: Conducting a Woodland Inventory

  • Tree Measurements
    • Tree Diameter, Tree Height, Tree Defects, Tree Volume, Stand Measurements, Stand Density
  • Growth and Yield Tables
  • Site QualityTree Quality, Site Index
  • Understory Plants as Site Indicators
  • References

Chapter 3: How Trees and Woodlands Grow

  • How Trees Grow
    • Parts of a Tree, Effects of Tree Characteristics, Effects of Site
    • Characteristics, Effects of Climate
  • How Woodlands Grow

Chapter 4: Regenerating Woodland Stands

  • Natural Regeneration
    • Seed, Root Suckers, Stump Sprouts, Layering
  • Artificial Regeneration
    • Direct Seeding, Seedlings, Cuttings, Tree Spacing
  • Site Preparation
  • Planting
  • Harvest and Regeneration Systems
    • Even-aged Systems, Uneven-aged Systems
  • Influence of Climate Change
  • Reference

Chapter 5: Woodland Improvement Practices

  • Seedling Stands
  • Sapling and Poletimber Stands
  • Sawtimber Stands
  • Deadening Unmerchantable Trees
  • Pruning
    • Corrective Pruning, Clear-stem Pruning

Chapter 6: Managing Important Forest Types

  • Aspen
  • Balsam Fir
  • Birch
  • Black Ash–American Elm–Red Maple
  • Black Spruce
  • Black Walnut
  • Bur Oak
  • Eastern White Pine
  • Hemlock–Yellow Birch
  • Jack Pine
  • Maple–Beech–Yellow Birch
  • Northern Pin Oak
  • Northern White-Cedar
  • Red (Norway) Pine
  • Silver Maple–American Elm
  • Tamarack
  • White Oak–Black Oak–Northern Red Oak
  • References

Chapter 7: Forest Health

  • Animal Damage
    • Birds, Deer, Small Mammals, Livestock
  • Environmental Damage
    • Airborne Chemicals, Machinery, Soil, Water, Weather
  • Insect Damage
    • Defoliating Insects; Sapsucking Insects; Bud, Twig, and Seedling Damaging Insects;
    • Bark Beetles; Wood-Boring Insects; Root-Feeding Insects; Cone and Seed Destroying Insects
  • Disease Damage
    • Foliage Diseases, Stem and Branch Diseases, Root Diseases
  • Fire Damage

Chapter 8: Marketing Timber

  • Why Harvest Timber?
  • Steps in Marketing Timber
  • Selecting a Forester
  • Selecting Trees to Harvest
  • Determining Seasonal Timing of Harvest Operations
  • Determining Timber Worth
  • Methods of Selling Timber
    • Lump Sum Sale, Sale-by-Unit
  • Creating a Timber Sale Prospectus
  • Advertising Your Sale
  • Selecting a Buyer
    • Single Offer, Oral Auction, Sealed Bids
  • Woodland Stewardship
  • Preparing a Contract
  • Inspecting the Active Harvest Operation
    • Sample Timber Sale Contract
  • References

Chapter 9: Harvesting Timber

  • Safety
  • Timber Harvesting Guidelines
  • Timber Harvesting Systems
  • Transportation Infrastructure
    • Skid Trails, Landings
  • Harvesting Equipment
    • Operations at the Stump, Transporting Material from the Stump to the Landing,
    • Landing Operations, Equipment Selection
  • Forest Certification
  • References

Chapter 10: Management and Marketing of Nontimber Forest Products

  • Selected NTFPs
    • Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter, Non-seasonal
  • Management and Marketing Considerations
  • Learning More
  • References

Chapter 11: Wildlife and Forest Management

  • Timber Harvests and Wildlife
    • Clearcutting, Shelterwood Harvests, Timber Stand Improvement, (Selective Harvests)
  • Early Successional (Young) Forests and Associated Wildlife
  • Late Successional (Mature) Forests and Associated Wildlife
    • Turkeys; Woodpeckers, Wood Ducks, and Other Cavity Users;
  • Songbirds; Mammals; Reptiles and Amphibians
  • Wildlife Challenges
    • Wildlife Damage Management, Deer Management, Endangered and Threatened Species Management
  • References

Chapter 12: Noise and Visual Quality

  • Noise Management
  • Landscape Management
  • Roads and Trails
  • Timber Harvesting
  • Regeneration
  • Woodland Improvement Practices
  • Woodland Protection
  • References

Chapter 13: Recreational Trail Design

  • Determine Trail Uses
  • Select the Corridor
    • Use Photos and Maps, Scout the Trail Corridor,
    • Additional Points to Consider
  • Establish Design Standards
  • Mark Trail Location
  • Clear the Trail
  • Construct the Tread
    • Factors Affecting Tread Choice, Tread Materials, Tread Edging
  • Install Structures
    • Crossing Flat Land, Crossing a Hillside, Divert Water Flowing Down the Tread,
    • Climbing and Descending Steep Slopes and Cliff s, Crossing Wet Soil, Crossing
    • Waterways and Gullies, Abutments, Girders and Trusses, Suspension Cables,
    • Trails that Cross or Utilize Roads, Crossing Fences and Gates
  • Sign the Trail
    • Trailhead Sign, Confidence Markers, Directional Signs, Warning Signs
  • Install Facilities

Chapter 14: Financial Considerations

  • Federal Income Tax Guidelines
    • Defining Your Operation, Expenses, Timber Sale Income, Other Timber-Related Income, Property Taxes
  • Financial Analysis of Woodland Investments
    • Steps in a Financial Analysis
  • Carbon Credits for Forestry
    • Market for Forest-based Carbon Credits, Landowner Enrollment
    • Procedures Verification, Trading Carbon Credits
  • Estate Planning
    • Wills and Trusts, Types of Business Ownership, Land Protection Options
  • References

Appendix A: Forestry Measurements and Conversions

Appendix B: Site Index Curves for Selected Tree Species

Appendix C: Stocking Charts for Selected Tree Species and Forest Types

Glossary

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