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Extension > Environment > Agroforestry > Gathering and growing edible fruits and nuts

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Gathering and growing edible fruits and nuts

Gary Wyatt, Mike Reichenback, Diomy Zamora, Dean Current and Gary R. Johnson

Gathering wild foods from the woods and environment is a common practice in many cultures today. Minnesotans are showing an increased interest in harvesting wild food, along with growing their own food, and purchasing locally grown foods. This publication provides a list of wild fruits and nuts that can be gathered in the woodlands of Minnesota and/or purchased and planted in your yard to provide food and enjoyment.

Gathering

Forest farming is one of five Agroforestry practices according to the USDA National Agroforestry Center. (Windbreaks, Alley Cropping, Riparian Forest Buffers, Silvopasture and Forest Farming).

Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is a term used to discuss edibles, medicinals, crafts and decoratives. These products can be used personally or can be used to generate income and form small businesses. Business examples include: wild ginseng, wild rice, wild crafting and evergreen boughs.

Permission to harvest: Individuals and families harvesting edibles and decoratives in a Minnesota State Forest or Park for home use do not need a state permit. However, harvesting edibles and decoratives which will be sold requires a state permit. Minnesota permit laws can be found here. Within a state park, collecting, harvesting, or taking a tangible object for resale or commercial use is prohibited, except by written permission of the commissioner. Harvesting wild rice on bodies of water totally enclosed within a state park boundary is prohibited except by written permission of the commissioner. Collecting or possessing naturally occurring plants in a fresh form at state parks is prohibited, with the exception of edible fruit and mushrooms, both of which may be harvested for personal, noncommercial use. Minnesota mushroom laws can be found here.

Permits can be obtained from the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Forestry offices, forestry offices of the Chippewa and Superior National Forests, DNR Division of Parks and Trails tribal headquarters on reservation lands, and county land management offices. (Not all sites allow gathering.)

An excellent wild gatherers resource is the Minnesota Harvester Handbook which addresses sustainable natural resource harvest and markets. This resource was developed by the University of Minnesota Extension and many contributors. It demonstrates the breadth and diversity of natural resources found in and around the state's woodlands. Copies can be purchased at the Minnesota Bookstore.

Growing fruits and nuts in home landscapes

There are many species of trees and shrubs that produce fruits and nuts that can be planted in home landscapes. Shrubs are smaller and preferred when space is limited.

The list of fruits and nuts in this fact sheet is not complete but gives resource information about plants that could be planted in home landscapes. Select cultivars with appropriate cold hardiness for the planting site. Additional fruits that are not listed include: raspberries, strawberries, apples, and grapes.

Edible fruits and nuts from trees and shrubs (for home landscape plantings)

Trees/Shrubs
Scientific name
MN Native Pollinator friendly Comments Zone Height Width
Apricot
Prunus armeniaca
X 4-8 Needs 2 varieties for cross pollination 12-18' 10-15'
Blackberry
Rubus spp.
X X 5-8 N/A 3-5' 6-20'
Blueberry
Vaccinium spp.
X X 3-7 Needs pH 4.0-5.5; 2 varieties best 5' 3'
Buffaloberry
Shepherdia argentea
X X 2-7 Needs 1 male to pollinate or more females 3-13' 5-8'
Cranberry, Highbush
Viburnum trilobum
X X 3-7 N/A 3-10' 3-6'
Cherry, Nanking
Prunus tomentosa
X 3-6 N/A 6-8' 6-10'
Cherries, Dwarf Sour
Prunus kerrasis
X 2-5 Dwarf Sour Cherries for the Prairies PDF 6-7' 6-7'
Cherry, Tart
Prunus cerasus
X X 4-7 N/A 10-12' 15-20'
Chestnuts
Castanea mollisima (Chinese)
X 4-9 (Typically Chinese Chestnut) Requires slightly acidic and well-drained soil 40-60' 50'
Chokeberry, Black
Aronia melanocarpa
X X 3-7 Also known as Aronia Berry (domestic cultivars: A. mitschurinii) 5-7' 5-7'
Chokecherry
Prunus virginiana
X X 2-7 N/A 5-15' 6-10'
Currant, Black
Ribes nigrum
X 3-5 (European=nigrum) 3-5' 3-5'
Currant, Red
Ribes rubrum
X 3-5 N/A 3-5' 3-5'
Currant, White
Ribes spp.
X 3-5 N/A 3-5' 3-5'
Gooseberry
Ribes hirtellum
X X 3-8 (Most available varieties are American x European hybrids) 2-5' 3-5'
Elderberry
Sambucus spp.
X X 3-8 Select cultivars being tested in MN (may grow but not ripen in Zone 3) (Black is edible) 6-10' 6-12'
Hazelnut
Corylus americana
X X 3-9 Bush-type, select cultivars being tested in MN 4-12' 3-8'
Hickory
Carya laciniosa,C. cordiformis,C. ovata
X X 4-8 Shellbark for uplands, Bitternut, Shagbark for lowlands 60-80' 50'
Honeyberry
Lonicera caerulea
X 2-7 Needs 2 compatible varieties; birds and powdery mildew can be problems 3-5' 3-5'
Juneberry
Amelanchier spp.
X X 2-5 (Serviceberry and Saskatoons) Shrub or tree forms 5-15' 10-40'
Jostaberry
Ribes nidigrolaria
X 3-8 N/A 6' 4-8'
Hardy Kiwifruit
Actinidia kolomikta
X 3-9 Needs 1 male to pollinate 1 or more females; May not fruit in zone 3 15-20' 20-25'
Korean Pine
Pinus koreansis
3-7 Pine nuts, resembles white pine N/A N/A
Lingonberry
Vaccinium vitis-ideaea
X X 2-7 Needs pH 4-5.5 2-16' 1-3'
Nannyberry
Viburnum lentago
X X 2-8 Prefers moist soil 10-15' 6-12'
Paw-Paw
Asimina triloba
X 5-8 Needs 2 varieties 15-20' 15-20'
Peaches
Prunus persica
X 4-9 N/A 24' 15'
Pear
Pyrus spp.
X 3-9 Fireblight resistant; needs 2 varieties for best production 10-40' 15-20'
Plum
Prunus spp.
X X 4-9 Hybrids need 2 compatible varieties; European plums are self-fertile 12-20' 8-15'
Walnut, Black
Juglans nigra
X X 4-6 High quality nuts require selected cultivars 100-150' 60-120'

Web sites

University of Minnesota - Fruit
University of Saskatschewan-Saskatoon - Fruit
University of Georgia - Minor fruits
DNR - Native Plant Encyclopedia
University of Minnesota - Agroforestry
University of Minnesota - My Minnesota Woods
National Agroforestry Center, USDA - Agroforestry
eXtension - Forest farming

Contact Information

Contacts:
Gary Wyatt, wyatt@umn.edu
Mike Reichenbach, reich027@umn.edu
Diomy Zamora, zamor015@umn.edu
Dean Current, curre002@umn.edu
Gary R. Johnson, johns054@umn.edu

Reviewers:
Emily Hoover, UM Horticulture
Jim Luby, UM Horticulture
Kathryn Zuzek, Extension Horticulture
Beth Berlin, Stearns County Extension

Neith Little, Dakota County Extension
Robin Trott, Douglas County Extension
Emily Tepe, UM Research Associate
Rebecca Koetter, Sweetscapes
Dan Shaw, BWSR
Jeff Jensen, Iowa Nut Growers Association
Leah Bailey, Berry Communications
Lee Reich, Horticultural Author
Kathy Wiederholt, CREC Fruit Project Manager
Sarah Foltz Jordan, Xerces Society
Nancy Adamson, NRCS, Xerces Society

2015

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