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II. Attempt to rid your pullet facilities of all rodents, wild birds, insects and pets. Refer to section on „Vector Control.š
III. Clean, wash and disinfect your pullet houses, cages and other equipment. Refer to section on „Decontamination of Facilities.š
IV. Monitor for successful pullet house decontamination. Monitor replacement chicks on arrival and pullets before movement to your layer facilities. Refer to section on „Bacteriological Monitoring.š
V. Attend to feed quality control and proper feed storage. Refer to section on „Feeds.š
VI. Know your pullet hauler‚s reputation. Insist that your pullets always be transported in decontaminated coops and trucks. Undisinfected coops frequently carry salmonella.
VIII. Vaccines. Historically, vaccination has been used in conjunction with biosecurity to attempt to reduce the effects of disease exposure when the risks of exposure appear high. Vaccination results vary with different diseases and methods of vaccine preparation. Vertical transmission of salmonella has been successfully halted with bacterin usage in turkeys. Salmonella vaccination research is underway at the Universities of Maine and Minnesota and other locations. Biomune and Maine Biologicals have produced bacterin for commercial use. Preliminary indications suggest that bacterins also reduce fecal and egg transmission of salmonella in chickens.
IX. Competitive Exclusion (CE). Immediate post-hatch establishment of CE intestinal microflora, in combination with a sanitary environment, reportedly may help reduce the risks of salmonella colonization in the gut of typically susceptible young fowl. CE cultures appear to be a way to help speed the maturation of a potentially protective intestinal microflora. Probiotics, such as defined cultures of lactobacilli, do not appear to be the same as CE cultures. CE research is being conducted at various locations, including Texas A & M University and USDA‚s Russell Research Center in Athens, Georgia. An assay for CE efficacy has been published. Refer to Appendix under the heading, „Evaluating Products.š
*Excerpted with permission from the 1991 United States Animal Health Association Salmonella Committee "Integrated Guidelines for Table Egg Producers" with input from members of the Minnesota Poultry Industries Association.
Therefore, salmonella risk reduction should include (1) attempts to make all facilities rodent-proof, (2) proper selection of baits and bait placement, (3) prompt, secure disposal of any dead birds, broken eggs or unused or spilled feed, and (4) regularly repeated professional rodent inspections, baiting and trapping. Cats are not recommended. They spread fowl cholera and salmonella. A detailed rodent control program follows.
The control of flies and beetles, which also may be salmonella vectors, requires use of a variety of practices. This reduces the selection pressure encountered with any single method. For example:
1. Keep manure well ventilated and dry.B. Insecticide application
2. Prevent water leaks and remove any wet areas.
3. If possible, use biological control methods (fly parasites and predators).
4. Use different classes of insecticides. Alternate, for example, among organic phosphates (Malathion), carbamates (Sevin) and pyrethrins.
1. After the floor is dry following cleaning and disinfection, apply an approved insecticide to the floor, support poles and walls to control beetles and other insect pests.
2. Synergized pyrethrins (pyrethrin + piperonyl butoxide) are among the few insecticides that can be utilized in automatic spray systems inside poultry houses. Their advantages are ability for quick „knockdownš of flying insects, short residual times and low mammalian toxicity. The rate of application of such insecticides, particularly when applied by an automatic spray system, should be no more frequent than twice a week.
3. Follow all manufacturer-recommended safety precautions when applying insecticides.
Avoid feed spills outside buildings and clean up immediately if they occur. Buildings should be constructed not only to exclude wild birds but to avoid birds perching under eaves or on blinds. Pets should be banned from pullet and layer houses.
B. It is suggested that some type of rodent barrier be installed around the perimeter of poultry houses.
C. Seal all entrance holes inside and outside the building. Repair siding and close siding sheet seams. Doors and door frames should fit snugly.
D. Seal holes and broken cement in manure pits.
E. Hiding in reused fiber filler flats, rodents can be brought onto farms by egg delivery trucks and equipment. Guard against this source of salmonella contamination.
F. Feed bins and sheds should be secured at night. Clean up dead birds and broken eggs daily.
B. Remove all alternative food sources for rodents (for example, spilled feed, broken eggs and dead birds).
C. Inspect the outside of the building routinely for rodent holes.
B. Purchasers of rodenticides often underestimate the long-term need. Secure an adequate inventory.
C. Save bait by baiting only active holes. Fill all rodent holes with dirt or paper and then bait only those that have been reopened.
D. Place bait according to directions supplied by the manufacturer of your rodenticide.
E. Control of attic rodents is facilitated by construction of a hatch for attic access and at least once-yearly baiting with high-wax, single-dose bait.
F. Once control has been achieved, inspection and service of permanent bait sites is essential every two weeks. Record the location and numbers of trapped mice and maintain these records.
G. Caution: All baits are poisonous to rodents, chickens, animals and people. Place baits carefully to prevent contamination of feed and eggs or accidental access by poultry and humans. Bait should not be placed loosely on the ground in areas frequented by people who might carry it on shoe soles and contaminate sensitive areas.
If any of your facilities tested salmonella-positive, the facility needs to be decontaminated promptly after bird removal to prevent residual contamination from infecting your replacements.
Successful decontamination programs require thorough, systematic implementation, proper equipment and professional training.
Decontamination of conventional facilities presents the table egg industry with a serious challenge due to facility size and complexity. Additionally, the common use of wooden construction materials, which are porous, appears to provide bacteria protection from the killing effects of disinfectants. Plastic and fibrous egg handling surfaces also appear to be more difficult to disinfect than non-porous metal surfaces. This problem will diminish the effectiveness of the decontamination procedures outlined in these guidelines.
Formaldehyde has been widely used in the past to help disinfect porous materials. Although particularly effective against salmonella, its use appears in jeopardy because of human safety concerns, product availability and regulatory policies. Application of alternative fumigants, heat-enhanced disinfectants, high-pressure sprays or disinfectant foams, and use of sealants to reduce wood porosity, may need to be further assessed as possible aids in disinfecting porous surfaces.
Facility decontamination needs to include the following basic considerations and precautions. Step-by-step decontamination procedures and the names and properties of various commercial disinfectants follow.
I. Invest in thorough dry cleaning with removal of all caked, layered or loose debris. This simplifies future cleanup operations and reduces the expense of wet cleaning.
II. Disinfectants and fumigants are effective only on clean surfaces. Cleaning and disinfection programs, when not fully effective at first, have been reported to have increased efficacy when they were improved and redone or repeated from flock to flock. A 1991 study reported a significantly improved probability for maintaining salmonella-negative replacements when they were placed in facilities that had previously passed both visual inspections and post-disinfection laboratory tests.
III. Bacteria can multiply on damp surfaces; therefore, disinfection should be started soon after washing/rinsing, and preferably within 24 hours.
IV. Drying of the facility immediately after application of disinfectants is advisable. Dryness is an impediment to salmonella multiplication.
V. Carefully follow all disinfectant safety, dilution and application directions provided by the manufacturer. Consult with the suppliers of both your equipment and disinfectants for the best and safest procedures for such items as egg elevators and belts, feeders, waterers and cages.
Additional detail on the problems of decontamination in today‚s industry is provided in „Cleaning and Disinfecting Problems in Cage Layer Housesš (Graves) and in „Constructing Cage Layer Houses for Cleaning Easeš (Graves). To order, refer to the Appendix.
B. Immediately begin vector control procedures during bird removal. Refer to guideline section on „Vector Control. š
B. On the inside, brush, sweep, vacuum and wipe dust and other dirt from ceilings, light fixtures, beams, ledges, walls, cages, fan parts, air inlets and walkways. Move from top to bottom.
C. Promptly open feeder lines and remove feed from trough, all line corners and all other points of feed accumulation.
D. Open egg conveyance equipment at the front of the building and remove all dust and egg debris. Remove all broken parts and all soiled items that cannot be cleaned.
E. Remove as much manure from dropping boards as possible. Manual scraping, in addition to low-speed mechanical scraping, may be helpful.
F. Remove all litter and manure from floor or cage houses, including all corners, augers and pit ends. Refer to section on „Bacteriological Monitoringš for NIOSH alert on manure pit hazards. Hard surface (concrete) floors can be cleaned faster and more easily than clay or earthen floors. Completely remove all manure. Hand sweeping and shoveling will be necessary around the perimeter, doorways, walkways, support poles, and corners of most houses to do a satisfactory job. If possible, fill trailers with manure inside the house and cover before moving it to a disposal or composting site. Manure should not be spread near poultry facilities.
G. Remove egg belts and sweep away all debris accumulating on both the top- and under-sides of the belt.
H. Rid pullet or layer houses, storage and egg rooms, egg coolers, hallways and stairways of all debris and non- essential items. Repeat for adjacent break, wash and restrooms or portable toilets.
I. Turn off power to electrical equipment prior to dry or wet cleaning. Non-removable motors, switches, etc., have been dry cleaned with compressed air or brushing. Extreme care should be taken so as not to get any sprays inside electric motors. Duct tape can be used to cover the slots in motor housings prior to wet cleaning and disinfection. The tape must be removed after wet cleaning and disinfection is completed.
III. Wet Cleaning
Wet cleaning includes the steps of soaking, washing and rinsing. Use of hot water is preferred. Detergents and other surfactants are often added to the washing solution to loosen debris and films and allow better penetration of cleaning agents.
Salmonella can multiply to high numbers in the presence of debris and moisture. Therefore, the following steps should be executed without interim waiting periods.
B. Washing. Professional contractors use a systematic spray technique. They start at the back and work toward the front of the building, spraying the ceiling first, then the walls, and finally the floor.
Use sprayer attachments and nozzles that permit washing of hard-to-reach areas.
Although use of pressure sprays ranging from 200-2000 psi have been reported, washing pressures of 750-2000 psi are preferred. At high pressure, however, special care and safety garments are needed. Pressure sprayers can cut human skin like a knife. Care must be exercised to follow the manufacturer‚s instructions for the use this equipment.
2. Pay special attention not only to the top, but also to the underneath sides of troughs and obvious and hidden surfaces of all chains and augers.
3. Extreme care is needed for the egg elevator. Check for cleanliness from every angle possibleųfrom underneath in the pit and from behind rollers. Remove all traces of egg breakage and spillage.
4. Wash storage and egg rooms, egg coolers, hallways, break, wash and restrooms.
5. Manually clean any areas that have resisted prior cleaning.
2. Immediately remove all puddles. They are bacterial breeding grounds.
All repairs should be made at this point (i.e., floor cracks filled, door frames repaired, damaged panels replaced, etc.). Repair manure and egg handling and other equipment.
V. Dirt Floors
In houses with dirt floor pits, a 3 to 6-inch layer of clean soil has reportedly been applied to decrease the risks of recontaminating new stock. The value of this procedure in salmonella prevention is unclear. Concrete floors are generally viewed as preferable.
Third-party visual inspection for completeness of the wet cleaning and repair operations is recommended. This may be done by an outside authority or by an in-house, unbiased employee responsible for quality control.
Disinfection should be started within 24 hours of rinsing. Because disinfectants are effective only on clean surfaces, do not begin disinfection until the house has passed its inspection for proper cleaning.
B. Dangerous mixtures. Each disinfectant is the result of careful formulation, and any addition of detergents, surfactants or insecticides to a disinfectant without the approval of its manufacturer could dangerously reduce the efficacy of one or more of the products in the mixture. For economy, efficacy and human and flock safety, manufacturer‚s label instructions must be followed carefully.
C. Evaluation of products. There has been an influx of claims for new salmonella disinfectants and control systems. The Appendix provides guidance on evaluating the efficacy of various products.
D. One gallon of diluted disinfectant is ordinarily applied to approximately 100-150 square feet of surface area. A calculation for the total amount of disinfectant solution needed has been developed. Determine the total surface area of the floor, ceiling and walls. Add 30% to this area to allow for cage surfaces.
E. Follow application instructions of the manufacturer. Use of pressure sprays is advisable to help force disinfectants into wood pores, cracks and crevices that protect salmonella. Spray pressures of 500-1000 psi have been suggested. Move from back to front and from top to bottom.
F. Dirt floors are virtually impossible to fully disinfect. In situations where dirt floors could not be concreted, disinfectant has been applied to the floor at one gallon diluted disinfectant per 10 square feet. A 1991 study reported favorable results with Clorox and formaldehyde. Note formaldehyde warning on next page.
G. Disinfect egg handling equipment (elevators, egg belts, etc.) in accordance with recommendations provided by equipment and disinfectant manufacturers. The use of steam, vats of water at pasteurization temperatures, or soaking in disinfectant to disinfect egg belts has been suggested but not fully evaluated for efficacy or adverse effects on the belt.
H. Decontaminate feed bins, boots, augers, hoppers and carts. Sanitize water-lines. Waterline and feed system directions have been published in „Biosecurity for Poultryš (Brunet). Refer to the Appendix for source. Be carefulųmetal and non-metallic components of watering systems can be damaged and lines plugged from improper use of sanitizing agents. Check with the manufacturer of farm water handling equipment before implementing any specific chlorine or other sanitation treatments of your wells or water lines.
Routine chlorination of poultry drinking water to a minimum 1 to 1.5 ppm free chlorine level has been reported in research to reduce the spread of salmonella.
I. In the past, direct application of formaldehyde solutions (formalin) has been used as a topical disinfectant for salmonella. Formaldehyde fumigation also has been used as a final crack- and pore-penetrating step in salmonella disinfection, provided proper levels of relative humidity (at least 70%) and temperature (at least 700 F) were maintained. Such applications may soon be unlawful.
WARNING: Formaldehyde and formalin are dangerous chemicals. Consequently, contact state/federal (EPA, OSHA, FDA) authorities and licensed professionals before con-sidering use! Gas masks, protective clothing and rescue plans are essential.
J. Promptly dry the building. Bullet space heaters have been used to speed drying in cold or damp climates.
K. Salmonella is invisible. Verify decontamination success by laboratory procedures. Refer to section on „Bacteriological Monitoring.š Laboratory tests of your pullet or layer facility should be negative before you place either chicks or ready-to-lay hens.
B. To reduce cracked or broken eggs, repair and adjust your egg handling and conveyance system from hen to cooler.
C. Remove old water filters. Clean and disinfect casing and install new filters.
D. Restock restrooms and portable toilets with soap and paper towels.
E. Remove coverings and tape used to protect electrical circuits and motors and make sure that all electrical equipment, time clocks, feed and water lines, egg- and manure-handling devices, brooder stoves, etc. operate properly.
F. All decontamination equipment such as rakes, shovels, scrapers, brushes, trucks, manure spreaders, bucket loaders and spray/disinfection devices also should be cleaned and disinfected after use and stored in a secure location.
Table 1. Properties and Examples of Common Disinfectanta a,b
|Special properties||Hypochlorites Chloramines||Iodophors||Cresols Phenols|
|Active against Gram negative |
bacteria (salmonella, E. coli, etc.
|Resistance to organic debris||Poor||Poor to fair||Good|
|Effect of hard water||Nonec||Nonec||None|
|Detrimental effect of heat||d||d||No|
|Most effective pH range||Acid||Acid||Acid|
|Compatibility with anionic|
|Compatibility with non- ionic surfactants||Yes||Yes||No|
|Common brands and namesf||Chloramine-T |
A visual inspection may not be enough. Salmonella is invisible. Birds, pets, pests or surfaces that „look OKš can, nonetheless, be contaminated. Consequently, properly executed bacteriologic monitoring at a qualified laboratory is necessary to complete your quality control program.
II. A Matter of Choice
Like a compass, monitoring lets you know where you are on the sea of risk reduction. Lawyers have offered that knowledge of a problem may be preferable to being blind to it. Refer to the Appendix for sources of further guidance under the „Economics/Legalš heading. Sampling and testing services are available from both private and public laboratories.
III. Sample Collection Sites and Procedures
Sampling often requires on-the-spot judgements. It is impossible to sample everything. Collection technique is more important than the number of samples collected. Limited sampling and improper laboratory technique can result in a false negative reading. Choose a laboratory that follows recommended salmonella culture techniques. A laboratory manual for the isolation and identification of avian pathogens, including salmonella, has been published by the American Association of Avian Pathologists (see the Appendix).
2. Collection procedures.
Use of cotton-tipped swabs is limited to sampling only hard-to-reach locations. For most other areas, 3 x 3 or 4 x 4 inch multiple-ply lightly-moistened gauze pads are preferred. They accommodate the forceful wiping of large (sometimes 2 X 2 foot) areas of a variety of surfaces. Pad moistness (such as from sterile buffered peptone water or double-strength skim milk) enhance adherence of particulate matter. Sample collectors should wear sterile disposable gloves. Samples should be promptly refrigerated at 35 to 380 F.
B. Sampling manure/litter surfaces with drag swabs
2. Collection procedures.
Using two gauze pads (previously described) connected to a cord of proper length and strength, draw the pads over the freshly-voided droppings accumulating under the full length of each row, or representative areas of floor pen litter.
Ordinarily in caged pullet or layer houses, one two-pad drag swab set is used per row, with all rows being similarly sampled. Usually two or three two-pad drag swab sets are drawn over the litter surface for flocks maintained on litter. Swabs should be drawn over litter surfaces at both pen ends and sides and the center. Total elapsed litter-exposure time for each two-pad drag swab set should be at least five to six minutes.
Salmonella monitoring of a) culled eggs (bloods and meat spots), and b) blood samples from hens is being evaluated at the Pennsylvania State University and the University of Minnesota, respectively. These techniques may offer additional or alternative monitoring strategies.
|0 to 1 daya,b||Chick transport papers, meconium, cull chicks and dead chicks||Detection of breeder or hatchery transmitted salmonella|
|2 weeksc||Dropping boards (cage reared) or litter surfaces (floor reared)||Detection of infection after period of high susceptibility|
|10-16 weeks||Droppings or drag swabs of manure (litter) surfaces||Detection of infection prior to movement to layer facilities|
|2-3 days after decontamination (C & D) of pullet facility||Building/equipment surfaces, fan blades, etc.||Evaluation of C & D operation prior to housing new chicks|
|10-12 weeks prior to depopulation of layer housea,b,c,d||Droppings, or drag swabs of manure (litter), and building/equipment surfaces (for example, egg belts and elevators, fan blades, cages, walls, etc.)||Detection of infection with adequate time for decontamination (C & D) and vaccination of pullets|
|2-3 days after C & D||Building/equipment surfaces as listed above||Evaluation of C & D operation prior to housing new pullets|
II. Gather eggs frequently. Eggs exposed to temperatures of 80-900 F promote bacterial multiplication and increased salmonella risk.
III. For in-line washing systems, wash the eggs and cool to 450 F or less. Use only potable water with a maximum iron content of two parts per million and a minimum wash water temperature of 900 F.
IV. For nest run systems, cool eggs immediately to 600 F until they are washed to avoid thermal cracks during washing. If the temperature difference between the eggs and the wash water is 500 F or more, it may be necessary to pre-warm the eggs before washing. Wash and rinse solutions should be 10-150 F warmer than the eggs. Sanitizers should be used according to manufacturer‚s recommendations. After washing, cool the eggs to 450 F or less if sweating can be controlled.
V. The storage and transport temperature of eggs should remain at 450 F or less.
VI. Rotation of product in coolers should be given top priority at all levels of distribution, warehousing, sale, and home or institutional use. Such inventory control decreases the likelihood of salmonella amplification in the product.
VII. Advise customers on egg carton labels that eggs are a perishable food requiring the same total care, including cooking, as any other food of animal origin. Better informed consumers work to the benefit of both producers and their customers. Eggs should be stored in their original carton in the main section of the refrigerator and not in the door shelf, where temperatures can reach 600 F.
VIII. Fiber flats and egg cartons should not be reused. Although an economy, their reuse could lead to further spread of contamination. The use of plastic flats is encouraged. They must be washed and disinfected after each use.
The egg producer‚s goal is to eliminate or reduce unknown salmonella from the surface or the interior of the eggs produced. Proper egg washing and sanitizing has performed well in delivering a clean egg to the consumer. The question to address now is, „What about salmonella bacteria inside the egg?š
The goal of an egg handling program in addressing the possibility of internal contamination is to prevent penetrating salmonella organisms from multiplying. We have only two tools to accomplish this: the natural antibacterial properties of egg white, and low temperatures to prevent multiplication.
Egg white contains natural antibacterial products that help to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. In nature, this protective mechanism helps a chick hatch from an egg that is a good growth medium for bacteria as well as chicks. These natural products decline in effectiveness as the egg white ages, but they help prevent bacterial growth during the time the egg is cooling. Cool temperatures help retard the aging of egg white, and thus help maintain its antibacterial properties.
Cold temperatures alone can also prevent or reduce the growth of salmonella organisms. Research (Kim, et al, 1989) has shown that when Salmonella enteritidis was experimentally inoculated into eggs, it did not multiply at 400 F, but did multiply at 500 F. Therefore, reducing egg temperature to 450 F or lower can be used to reduce the risk of salmonella multiplication.
Humphrey, T. J. Public health implications of the infection of egg-laying hens with Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4. World‚s Poultry Science Journal. 46:5-13. March, 1990.
Kim, C. J., D. A. Emery, H. Rinke, K. V. Nagaraja, and D. A. Halvorson. Effect of time and temperature on growth of Salmonella enteritidis in experimentally inoculated eggs. Avian Dis. 33:735-742. 1989.
B. It is strongly recommended that producers use animal protein ingredients originating from rendering plants participating in the Animal Protein Producers Industry (APPI) Salmonella Reduction Education Program. Refer to the Appendix. to locate a listing of renderers participating in the APPI Program.
C. Dryness of feed ingredients and finished feed at all stages of manufacture and storage is a critically important risk reduction step.
B. Prevent feed from getting wet. Condensation control and maintenance of the moisture barriers in storage bins is essential.
C. Seek advice from your nutritionist and/or veterinarian before using anti-salmonella feed additives. They vary in effectiveness and mode of action and may be subject to regulatory control by FDA.
D. Establish your own bank of feed samples. Feed banks and testing promote quality control. Store samples in a clean, dry location at room temperature.
Salmonella best gains a foothold when a virus or other infectious agent weakens your flock‚s natural defenses. Research has demonstrated that bursal disease, coccidiosis, mycoplasmosis, infectious bronchitis, mycotoxicosis, and even antibiotic medication may increase susceptibility to salmonellosis. Consequently, every step in biosecurity (human traffic control, cleaning and disinfection of all materials moving between flocks, proper building location and construction, and much more) adds up to an investment in survival. Look not at biosecurity as an expenseųlook at it instead as an insurance premium helping to ensure a more predictable future.
Humans can also carry salmonella to your chickens and their eggs. Consequently, the personal hygiene of all farm workers is an essential consideration. Provide enough clean, operable toilets, with hand washing and drying facilities, in locations and numbers to serve all employees. Pullet and layer buildings are closer to nurseries and kitchens than many fully appreciate!
Additional materials (videotapes, pamphlets, etc.) to inspire, train, and retrain everyone in your operation are available for use at all levels, from the owner to the hired hand. (Refer to the Appendix.) Review such materials regularly. If you cannot adopt all recommended practices, adopt some of them. Then add more every year until you have built a solid defense.
2. Patrol daily for prompt, secure removal of all dead and dying birds.
3. Have disinfectant soap available for personnel handling chickens or eggs.
4. Do not come into the poultry house after hunting.
5. Keep egg belts, elevators, etc. in proper adjustment. Regularly clean and sanitize.
6. Wear clean clothing.
2. Insist that biosecurity garments are worn by all visitors, farm executives and anyone else.
3. Absolutely prohibit caretakers from maintaining any home flocks of poultry.
2. Be sure the driver is dressed in clean clothing before he is allowed in the house.
Biosecurity check lists and third party inspections as a requirement for participation in an officially-recognized risk reduction program are being presented to the Georgia egg industry. For information on the proposed Georgia program, refer to the Appendix under the „Biosecurityš heading.
**Adapted from Diseases of Poultry. Ninth ed. 1991. Chapter 30, "External Parasites and Poultry Pests." (J. J. Arends). Pp. 727-730.
***Adapted from "Biosecurity for PoultryųLock Diseases Out." 1987. (Brunet).
|Biosecurity and the Poultry Industry. Video cassette. 1988. USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services. 90 minutes.||American Association of Avian Pathologists
University of Pennsylvania, New Bolton Center
Kennett Square, PA 19348-1692
$20 per cassette. (215-444-4282)
|"Biosecurity for PoultryųLock Diseases Out" Extension Circular 350. Mid-Atlantic Cooperative ExtensionųPoultry Health and Management Unit. 1987. P. Y. Brunet. 9 pp.||Cooperative Extension Service, Veterinary Science
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802
Limited copies available.
|"Biosecurity for PoultryųStomp the Invisible Enemy." Mid-Atlantic Cooperative ExtensionųPoultry Health and Management Unit. 1987. T. M. Nelson and E. T. Mallinson. 14 pp.||T. Milton Nelson
Information and Publications
Cooperative Extension Service
Room 0126, Symons Hall
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742
25 cents per copy. (301-405-4596)
|Diseases of Poultry. Ninth Edition. 1991. Eds. Calnek, Barnes, Beard, Reid and Yoder. 944 pp. illus., hardcover||Iowa State University Press
Dept. 1787, 2121 S. State Ave.
Ames, IA 50010
$94.95 (Discount price $85.46)
|"Proposed Georgia SE Prevention Program for Pullets and Layers." 1991. Cooperatively developed by local state and federal agencies.||Dr. D.C. Johnson
Area Veterinarian in Charge
USDA, APHIS, VS
1000 Iris Drive, Suite G
Conyers, GA 30207
|"Keeping Egg Production Safe from Salmonella enteritidis." Mid-Atlantic Cooperative ExtensionųPoultry Health and Management Unit. 1989. E. T. Mallinson. Basic illustrated flyer for flock caretakers. 2 pp.||Dr. E. T. Mallinson
Gudelsky Veterinary Center
University of Maryland
8075 Veterinary Science Drive
College Park, MD 20742-3711
No charge. (301-935-6083)
|"Cleaning and Disinfecting Problems in Cage Layer Houses." Paper No. NAR 85-409. 1985. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. R. E. Graves. 17 pp.||Dr. Robert E. Graves
201 Agricultural Engineering Bldg.
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802
|"Constructing Cage Layer Houses for Cleaning Ease." Special Circular 318. 1986. R. E. Graves. 11 pp.||Agricultural Publications Distribution Center
112 Agricultural Building
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802
No charge for single copy.
|"An Overview of Salmonella Litigation Liability." 1990. 7 pp.||C. J. Pakuris, Esq.
Margolis, Edelstein, Scherlis, Sarowitz and Kraemer
Curtis Center, 4th Floor
Independence Square West
Philadelphia, PA 19106-3304
|"Choosing Between the Breaking Plant and the Slaughter Plant." Egg Industry. May/June 1991. Pp. 28-30.||Walter Stephens
Watt Publishing Company
122 S. Wesley Avenue
Mount Morris, IL 61054
|"Regulations Governing the Grading of Shell Eggs, etc." (7CFR Part 56). May 1991. Refer to Section 56.76, "Minimum Facility and Operating Requirements" (p. 9).||Agricultural Marketing Service
Washington, DC 20250
|"Tips for Washing Commercial Eggs." Mid-Atlantic Cooperative ExtensionųPoultry Health and Management Unit. 1989. Chaloupka, Reynnells and Keene. 12 pp.>||T. Milton Nelson
Information and Publications
Cooperative Extension Service
Room 0126, Symons Hall
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742
30 cents per copy.
|"Disinfection of Poultry Transport Cages." Paper No. 90-6015. 1990. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. El-Assaad, Stewart and Carr. 34 pp.||Dr. Larry E. Stewart
Department of Agricultural Engineering
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742
|"Guidelines on Disinfection in Animal Husbandry for Prevention and Control of Zoonotic Diseases." Eds. Russell, Yanych and Koulikovskii. 62 pp.||Chief, Veterinary Public Health
Division of Communicable Diseases
World Health Organization
1211 Geneva 27
No charge for one copy.
|"Recommended Assay for Treatment of Chicks to Prevent Salmonella Colonization by Competitive Exclusion." G. C. Mead et al. Journal of Food Protection. July 1989. Vol. 52, No. 7, pp. 500-502.||
Journal of Food Protection
502 E. Lincoln Way
Ames, IA 50010-6666
|A Laboratory Manual for the Isolation and Identification of Avian Pathogens. Chapter 1, "Salmonellosis." Third Edition. 1989. Eds. Purchase, Arp, Domermuth and Pearson. 227 pp.||American Association of Avian Pathologists
University of Pennsylvania, New Bolton Center Kennett Square, PA 19348-1692
$26 per copy
|"Novel Salmonella Detection System Developed; Combines Increased Reliability, Practicality." Feedstuffs. January 28, 1991. 4 pp.||Feedstuffs
12400 Whitewater Drive, Suite 160
Minnetonka, MN 55343
|List of 190 Animal Protein Producers Industry (APPI) participants with city and state addresses.||Dr. F. D. Bisplinghoff
7150 Estero Bouevard
Fort Myers, FL 33931
|"Integrated Pest Management for Poultry." J. J. Arends and S. M. Stingham. 1991. 68 pp.||Department of Entomology
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27592-7613
No charge. (919-515-2703)
In accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, this material is available in alternative formats upon request. Please contact your University of Minnesota Extension office or the Extension Store at (800) 876-8636.
The information given in this publication is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by University of Minnesota Extension is implied.