IN THE 1930s the chrysanthemum breeding project at the U of M was initiated. Since then, 76 garden mums and seven greenhouse or florist mums have been introduced. Today, Minnesota maintains the only public mum breeding project in the country. U of M scientists make hybrids in the winter and plant out hundreds of seedlings the following spring to compare them to the best performers. Trials are conducted in St. Paul and at six other U of M Research and Outreach Centers, which represent the variability of Minnesota soil,
climate. Plants are
evaluated for flower
size, color, growth
habit, vigor, frost
tolerance and winter
'Rose Blush' is noted for its profusion of
early mauve flowers that develop before September and last
for several weeks,
even resisting damage from frost.
'Minngopher' produces crimson red flowers in late September, typical of mums that respond to the short day length in the fall.
Below: 'Sesquicentennial Sun' will be available in 2001 to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the U of M. It is a compact, long-flowering golden mum that is frost-tolerant. Flowering begins in early August and continues until a killing freeze in October. This is an improved variety of 'Centennial Sun,' released in 1985 on the 100th anniversary of the Agricultural Experiment Station, the sponsor of horticultural breeding work at the U of M.
SHOWY PERENNIALS that flower from August until frost, these U of M mums are uniquely developed to withstand USDA Zone 3 and 4 growing conditions and will usually overwinter when covered with a protective mulch in late fall. Mums prefer full sun and well-drained soil. For best flowering, have your soil tested (contact your county Extension office to obtain directions) and add fertilizer if necessary. Pinching has long been recommended on mums, but is not required. Pinching the branch tips anytime from early June until July 4 will delay flowering and produce shorter, more compact plants. Left unpinched, plants will flower earlier and have taller, more irregular growth. The University does not pinch any of their field trials. Over time, mums increase in size and can become crowded. When that happens, dig and divide the plants in early spring just as growth starts.
FOR MORE INFORMATION:
Garden Chrysanthemums, FS-7068
Above: 'Maroon Pride' is grown for its rich, dark red flowers in late August. A day neutral mum, it does not need short days to induce flowering.
|In 1992, University plant breeders reviewing a research field of seedlings discovered a new mum that grew to the size of shrubs. They later coined the name Maxi-MumsTM, as there are several thousand flowers on a single plant! A major, worldwide promotion of new introductions in this series of garden mums begins in 2001.|
Key to Tables
Varieties are listed with year of introduction.
these are available from retail nurseries.
Regular type indicates heirloom varieties with
|U OF M CHRYSANTHEMUMS|
||golden yellow, 19-24" tall, 20-23" wide, flowers early August|
||quilled flowers, 24-26" tall, 20" wide, flowers early Sept.|
|Betty Lou Maxi-Mum TM
||red, button flowers before Sept 1, 30" spread, 12-18" tall|
||light bronze, 2" double button, 12" tall, flowers before Sept. 1|
||3" white flowers with purple tips, 12" tall, day-neutral, flowers July until frost|
||mauve, 2-3" decorative, 12-18" tall, flowers Sept. 1-15|
||dark red, 3 1/2" flat, decorative, 12-18" tall, flowers before Sept. 1|
||cushion, 2-2.5", ruby-red decorative flowers|
||Maroon 'n Gold
||Dee Dee Arens