|Minnesota Report 240-1996|
Peter Ascher, Neil Anderson, Vince Fritz, Steve Poppe, Tony Strasser, Roger Wagner, Dave Wildung§
Copyright © 2013 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
Two new chrysanthemums are now available to the gardening public. The University of Minnesota's renowned horticultural breeding program announces the release of 'Inca' and 'Snowscape'.
'Inca' is truly unique. It flowers profusely with colors resembling the earthly brilliance of blooming marigolds. It is the product of the cross of yellow Minnesota Selection No. 89-320-40 and purple Minnesota Selection No. 89-471-21.
'Snowscape' is a bicolor mum with its own unique characteristics. It's a very early flowering plant. 'Snowscape' coloration, petal patterning of white with purple tips, gives its flowers the appearance of dahlias.
'Snowscape' plants form flowerful mounds flowing nearly to the ground, giving the effect of snow drifts on a sunny afternoon. It is the product of open-pollination of inbred parent Minnesota Selection No. 89-471-21.
'Inca' is an ideal fall chrysanthemum. It presents the appearance of an 'Inca' treasure, a developing tapestry of fall colors. Its flowers open as red buttons which fade to a light bronze/orange, with yellow highlights, as each flower ages. Floral coverage is so dense on the semi-hemispherical plants that foliage is completely hidden.
'Inca' grown commercially for flowering spring pot sales is a six-week cultivar, requiring only minimal application of a chemical growth reg-ulator. Grown under short-day conditions, 'Inca' averages 5 inches (13 cm) tall in a 4-inch (10 cm) pot without a chemical growth regulator.
'Inca' flowers, under field or garden conditions, in early August. It is in full bloom across the state of Minnesota by August 15.
'Inca' flowers are 2 inches (5 cm) in diameter, fully double, button type. 'Inca' has a cushion plant habit with intermediate stem stiffness. Plant height averages 12 inches (30 cm) with plant spread of about 16 1/2 inches (41 cm). Flowers are moderately frost resistant and plants are moderately winter hardy in open-field conditions.
'Inca' represents a new concept in chrysanthemum flower colors. No commercial cultivars match its appearance. Plant habit and overall shape of 'Inca' resemble mums 'Bold Christine' and 'Glowing Lynn' (Yoder Brothers, Inc., Barberton, Ohio), although 'Inca' flowers one week earlier.
'Snowscape' is a five-week response cultivar when grown commercially for flowering spring pot sales. It is the earliest flowering, day-neutral garden mum released by the University of Minnesota.
'Snowscape's' day neutrality causes it to bloom only one week later under long-day conditions than with standard, short-day photoperiods. For spring flowering pot sales, 'Snowscape' averages 4 inches (10 cm) in height in 4-inch (10 cm) pots (short-day photoperiods) without a chemical growth substance. Thus, it is not recommended that a chemical growth substance be applied.
'Snowscape' begins flowering, in field trials, in late July to early August and continues with a full canopy of blossoms until a freeze. It flowers earlier than comparable commercial cultivars in both cool and hot summers.
'Snowscape' semi-double decorative flowers average 3 inches (7.5 cm) in diameter. Plant height averages 11 inches (28 cm) and spread about 18 1/2 inches (47 cm). 'Snowscape' has a spreading cushion plant habit and strong stem stiffness. In plant habit and shape, 'Snowscape' resembles 'Foxy Valerie' (Yoder Brothers). Also resembling 'Spotlight' (Yoder Brothers), it differs by having white flowers with a pink eye and by being in the seven-week response group.
'Snowscape' flowers are moderately frost resistant and plants are moderately winter hardy under open field conditions. 'Snowscape' should be mulched to ensure maximal winter survival.
'Snowscape' and 'Inca' should be planted in the spring after danger of killing frost has past. Use small plants derived from rooted suckers of old plants or new plants from a local source. Larger plants in various stages of development may be planted anytime during the summer or early fall.
SOIL AND SITE
Mums grow best in full sun and well-drained soil. Incorporate peat moss, compost, or well-rotted barnyard manure and superphosphate (3 to 5 pounds per 100 square feet) into the soil. If you use peat moss or do not add organic matter, apply a commercial fertilizer in the spring (such as a 5-10-5 or 10-10-10) according to package directions. Side dressing plants with a complete fertilizer in early August is recommended. A second application may not be needed if a "slowly available" type of fertilizer is used in the spring.
Cultivars usually bloom earlier in northern Minnesota and later in southern Minnesota.
'Inca' was specifically developed to match and carry the coloration of marigolds into the fall garden. Marigolds and 'Inca' can be interplanted in the garden. In early summer, 'Inca' will serve as foliage backdrop to the marigolds. 'Inca' will begin blooming as fall approaches and carry its colors into the fall.
'Snowscape' naturally complements dahlias in the garden. Being day neutral, it will bloom during the summer when dahlias are also at their peak. Planted with dwarf dahlias, it can carry splashes of color down to the ground. As dahlias are killed by early fall frosts, 'Snow-scape' provides color into the fall.
'Snowscape' and 'Inca' will suffer from a lack of water. About one inch of water weekly is usually adequate.
INSECTS / DISEASE
Spraying or dusting an all-purpose insecticide-fungicide mixture twice a month, June through September, is recommended.
Possible causes of late flowering include insufficient sun (shaded), fertilizer, or water; pinching too late; root competition from nearby trees and shrubs; unusually hot weather, especially nights, in August; unusually cold weather in August and September; insect or disease injury.
To carry chrysanthemums over the winter:
Sections of chrysanthemum frequently survive Minnesota winters. If the entire clump survives, divide it into small clumps with two or three growing points, rather than allow it to continue growing as a single plant.
'Inca'TM and 'Snowscape'TM may be propagated only under a license. Parties desiring such a license should contact Neil Anderson (612/624-3232; email@example.com) or Peter Ascher (612/624-9762; firstname.lastname@example.org), Department of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota, 1970 Folwell Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108.
Individuals seeking plants should contact these licensed propagators: Dooley Gardens, 210 North High Drive NE, Hutchinson, MN 55350 (612/587-3050) or Mums for Minnesota, 3135 227th Street East, Faribault, MN 55021 (507/334-6220).
|Variety*||Flower Color||Plant Description||Height **||Time of Bloom***|
|Inca||Light bronze-orange||2" double button||Low||Early|
|Burnt Copper||Copper orange-bronze||3" double pompon||Tall||Midseason|
|Centennial Sun||Bright golden yellow||11/2" double decorative||Medium||Early|
|Minnautumn||Reddish bronze||21/2" formal decorative||Low||Midseason|
|Minngopher||Crimson red||21/4" decorative||Low||Late|
|Minnruby||Ruby red||21/4" decorative||Low||Midseason|
|Variety*||Flower Color||Plant Description||Height **||Time of Bloom***|
|Snowscape||White, purple tips||3" semi-double decorative||Low||Early|
|Mellow Moon||Cream||41/2" semi-incurved decorative||Medium||Midseason|
|Rose Blush||Mauve||2-3" decorative||Low-medium||Midseason|
|Rosy Glow||Deep rosy pink||4" decorative incurved||Medium||Midseason|
|Snowsota||White, cream centers||11/2" pompon||Low||Midseason|
* Names beginning with "Minn" indicate cushion habit of growth. Names ending with "sota" indicate a pompon flower type.
** Low, up to 12 inches; medium, 12-18 inches; tall, over 18 inches. Measures are for first-year plants properly spaced and grown in full sun.
*** Twin Cities area plantings. Early, starts blooming before September 1; midseason, September 1-15; late, September 15 on.
§ Author affiliations:
Peter Ascher, Neil Anderson-Department of Horticultural Science, St. Paul MN 55108;
Vince Fritz-Southern Experiment Station, Waseca MN 56093;
Steve Poppe-West Central Experiment Station, Morris MN 56267;
Tony Strasser-Southwestern Experiment Station, Lamberton MN 56162;
Roger Wagner-University of Minnesota Technical College, Crookston MN 56717;
Dave Wildung-North Central Experiment Station, Grand Rapids MN 55744.
Photos: Dave Hansen. Editing: Larry Etkin. Design and production: John Molstad and Larry Etkin.
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