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Extension > Agriculture > Crops > Soybean > Fertilizer recommendations for edible beans in Minnesota

Fertilizer recommendations for edible beans in Minnesota

George Rehm, Extension soil scientist
Michael Schmitt, Extension soil scientist
Roger Eliason, Director, Univeristy of Minnesota Soil Testing Laboratory

soybean-plant

Edible bean production contributes substantially to farming enterprises in Minnesota. The term "edible bean" describes a variety of beans that are grown for human consumption. The recommendations and suggestions in this publication are intended to be used for the production of all edible beans. At this time, there are no data suggesting that one type of edible bean should be fertilized differently than another.

Nitrogen

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer recommendations can be based either on the results of the soil nitrate test or the consideration of yield goal, previous crop, and soil organic matter content. The soil nitrate test is appropriate for the fine-textured soils of western and northwestern Minnesota. It should not be used for soils that have a sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam texture. When the soil nitrate test is used, the fertilizer N recommendations are calculated using Equation 1.

Equation 1: N(Rec) = (.05) (YG) - N(ST) - N(PC)

Where:

YG = yield goal, lb./acre
N(ST) = nitrate-N (NO3)-N) measured at a depth of 0-24 inches, lb./acre

NPC = N credits for a previous crop, lb./acre. These are listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Nitrogen credits for legume crops for the first year of edible beans following a legume. Use these values in equation 1.

Legume Crop1st Year
Nitrogen Credit
(--lb./acre--)
soybeans40
edible beans, field peas,
harvested sweet clover
20
harvested alfalfa or nonharvested sweet clover
(4 or more plants/ft2)
150
harvested alfalfa or nonharvested sweet clover
(2-3 plants/ft2)
100
harvested alfalfa or nonharvested sweet clover
(1 or less plants/ft2)
40
red clover70

The nitrogen recommendations for the situations where the soil nitrate test is not used are listed in Table 2.

Table 2. Nitrogen recommendations for edible beans for situations where the soil nitrate test is not used.

Crop Grown
Last year
Organic*
Matter
Level
Yield Goal (lb./acre)
1400 or
less
1401
-1900
1901-
2400
2401-
2900
2900+
 ---------------N to apply (lb./acre)---------------
alfalfa
(4+ plants/ft2)
nonharvested
sweet clover
low00000
medium and
high
00000
soybeanslow020406080
medium and
high
0003050
edible beans,
field peas,
harvested
sweet clover
low80406080100
medium and
high
00305070
group 1 cropslow0002545
medium and
high
000025
group 2 cropslow406080100120
medium and
high
1030507090
*Low=less than 3.0%; medium and high=3.0% or more.
CROPS IN GROUP 1CROPS IN GROUP 2
alfalfagrass/legume hayalfalfagrass haysorghum sudan
(2-3 plants/ft2)grass/legume pasture(0-1 plants/ft2)grass pasturesugarbeets
alsike cloverfallowbarleymilletsunflowers
birdsfoot trefoilred cloverbuckwheatmustardsweet corn
  canolaoatsvegetables
  cornpotatoeswheat
  flaxrye 

Nitrogen management practices should be adjusted according to soil texture. Split applications are suggested for sandy soils (sands, loamy sands, sandy loams). Approximately one-half of the suggested nitrogen should be applied approximately two weeks after planting. The remainder of the amount needed can be applied two weeks later.

Split applications are not needed if soils are not sandy. The nitrogen needed for these fields can be applied in the fall, before planting, or as a sidedress treatment. Considering the late date of planting common with edible bean production, a spring preplant application followed by incorporation would be preferred. Do not apply any N in contact with the seed at planting.

There is no evidence to suggest that there is a superior source of nitrogen for edible bean production. If applied so as to prevent loss, all nitrogen fertilizers should have an equal effect on yield.

Phosphate and potash

Current phosphate recommendations are summarized in Table 3. The recommendations for potash use are in Table 4. The recommendations listed in these tables are suggested for either banded or broadcast applications. Do not apply any fertilizer in contact with the seed.

Table 3. Phosphate recommendations for edible bean production.

Yield
Goal
Phosphorous (P) Soil Test (ppm)*
Bray: 0-56-1011-1516-2021+
Olsen:0-34-78-1112-1516+
lb./acre---------------P2O5 to apply (lb./acre)---------------
1400 or less30201500
1401-190035251500
1901-2400453020100
2401-2900554025100
2901+604525100

* Use one of the following equations if a P205 recommendation for a specific yield goal is desired.
P2O5 Rec = [.0231-.0011 (Bray P, ppm)] (Yield Goal)
P2O5 Rec = [.0231-.0014 (Bray P, ppm)] (Yield Goal)

Table 4. Potash recommendations for edible bean production.

Yield
Goal
Potassium (K) Soil Test (ppm)*
0-4041-8081+
lb./acre----------K2O to apply (lb./acre)----------
1400 or less35150
1401-190045150
1901-240055200
2401-290065250
2901+75300

* Use the following equation if a K2O recommendation for a specific soil test value and a specific yield goal is desired.
K2ORec = [.0346-.00042 (K Soil Test, ppm)] (Yield Goal)

Micronutrients:

Past research with edible beans has indicated that zinc is the only micronutrient that may be needed in a fertilizer program. Zinc suggestions for both starter and broadcast applications are listed in Table 5.

Table 5. Zinc recommendations for edible bean production.

Zinc
Soil Test*
Zinc to Apply
StarterBroadcast
-ppm--------------lb./acre-------------
0.00-0.25210
0.26-0.50210
0.51-0.7515
0.76-1.0000
1.10 +00
* Zinc extracted by the DTPA procedure

There is no research suggesting that other nutrients are needed in a fertilizer program for edible bean production. CAUTION! Do not apply any fertilizer in contact with the seed at planting.

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