Skip to Main navigation Skip to Left navigation Skip to Main content Skip to Footer

University of Minnesota Extension
www.extension.umn.edu
612-624-1222

Extension > Agriculture > Livestock > Poultry > Good management practices for salmonella risk reduction in the production of table eggs

Print Icon Email Icon Share Icon

Good management practices for salmonella risk reduction in the production of table eggs

David A. Halvorson

Chick and pullet replacements

Chickens have been found to be especially susceptible to salmonellosis from 1 to 14 days of age. Increased susceptibility also may recur when pullets are relocated to laying houses. Consequently, extra effort to reduce potential salmonella exposure and enhance bird vigor and resistance (optimal nutrition and husbandry) is highly advisable at these two critical ages.

  1. Purchase your chicks from hatcheries participating in the U.S. Sanitation Monitored program. Obtain your pullets from sources with an acceptable salmonella prevention and control program.
  2. Attempt to rid your pullet facilities of all rodents, wild birds, insects and pets. Refer to section on Vector Control.
  3. Clean, wash and disinfect your pullet houses, cages and other equipment. Refer to section on Decontamination of Facilities.
  4. Monitor for successful pullet house decontamination. Monitor replacement chicks on arrival and pullets before movement to your layer facilities. Refer to section on Bacteriological Monitoring.
  5. Attend to feed quality control and proper feed storage. Refer to section on Feeds.
  6. Know your pullet hauler's reputation. Insist that your pullets always be transported in decontaminated coops and trucks. Undisinfected coops frequently carry salmonella.
  7. Adhere to strict, continuing vector control and biosecurity standards throughout chick/pullet grow-out. Refer to sections on Vector Control and Biosecurity.
  8. Vaccines. Historically, vaccination has been used in conjunction with biosecurity to attempt to reduce the effects of disease exposure when the risks of exposure appear high. Vaccination results vary with different diseases and methods of vaccine preparation. Vertical transmission of salmonella has been successfully halted with bacterin usage in turkeys. Salmonella vaccination research is underway at the Universities of Maine and Minnesota and other locations. Biomune and Maine Biologicals have produced bacterin for commercial use. Preliminary indications suggest that bacterins also reduce fecal and egg transmission of salmonella in chickens.
  9. Competitive Exclusion (CE). Immediate post-hatch establishment of CE intestinal microflora, in combination with a sanitary environment, reportedly may help reduce the risks of salmonella colonization in the gut of typically susceptible young fowl. CE cultures appear to be a way to help speed the maturation of a potentially protective intestinal microflora. Probiotics, such as defined cultures of lactobacilli, do not appear to be the same as CE cultures. CE research is being conducted at various locations, including Texas A & M University and USDA's Russell Research Center in Athens, Georgia. An assay for CE efficacy has been published. Refer to Appendix under the heading, Evaluating Products.

*Excerpted with permission from the 1991 United States Animal Health Association Salmonella Committee "Integrated Guidelines for Table Egg Producers" with input from members of the Minnesota Poultry Industries Association.

Vector control

Vector control goes beyond preparation of depopulated houses prior to cleaning and disinfection. It also is an absolutely essential risk reduction practice for the entire life of your chicks, pullets and layers. Routine, licensed professional rodent and insect detection/extermination is suggested. Be sure that personnel practice strict biosecurity procedures for their clothing, equipment and vehicles and that the service provider has a good vector control record with poultry operations. A well-illustrated, detailed publication, Integrated Pest Management for Poultry, (Arends and Stingham) is available free of charge. To order, refer to the Appendix. Purina Mills has produced a film illustrating unique techniques for rodent monitoring and control.

Rodents

Rodent feces have been found to contain infectious doses of salmonella. Consequently, mouse pellets commonly deposited in feed troughs are now believed to amplify salmonella contamination in poultry. Beyond their salmonella amplification role, rodents appear to carry infection to both nearby and distant houses and farms.

Therefore, salmonella risk reduction should include:

  1. attempts to make all facilities rodent-proof,
  2. proper selection of baits and bait placement,
  3. prompt, secure disposal of any dead birds, broken eggs or unused or spilled feed, and
  4. regularly repeated professional rodent inspections, baiting and trapping.

Cats are not recommended. They spread fowl cholera and salmonella. A detailed rodent control program follows.

Rodent control details:**

Rodent proofing
  1. Eliminate potential rodent harborage inside and outside the poultry house (for example, high grass, shrubs, garbage, broken equipment, construction debris, burrows under the foundation, cardboard boxes, old filler flats).
  2. It is suggested that some type of rodent barrier be installed around the perimeter of poultry houses.
  3. Seal all entrance holes inside and outside the building. Repair siding and close siding sheet seams. Doors and door frames should fit snugly.
  4. Seal holes and broken cement in manure pits.
  5. Hiding in reused fiber filler flats, rodents can be brought onto farms by egg delivery trucks and equipment. Guard against this source of salmonella contamination.
  6. Feed bins and sheds should be secured at night. Clean up dead birds and broken eggs daily.
Preparations for baiting
  1. After house depopulation, all feed should be immediately removed from feeders so that rodents will promptly go to the bait.
  2. Remove all alternative food sources for rodents (for example, spilled feed, broken eggs and dead birds).
  3. Inspect the outside of the building routinely for rodent holes.
Bait selection and placement
  1. Warfarin, diphacinone, and pival are multiple-dose type anticoagulant rodenticides. They require continuous feeding over several days to have any lethal effect. They are best used as a routine, every-two-week baiting program. Newer anticoagulants contain brodifacoum and bromadiolone, which may cause death 3-5 days after a single feeding. Such single-dose rodenticides can be used at any time and are especially appropriate immediately upon house depopulation.
  2. Purchasers of rodenticides often underestimate the long-term need. Secure an adequate inventory.
  3. Save bait by baiting only active holes. Fill all rodent holes with dirt or paper and then bait only those that have been reopened.
  4. Place bait according to directions supplied by the manufacturer of your rodenticide.
  5. Control of attic rodents is facilitated by construction of a hatch for attic access and at least once-yearly baiting with high-wax, single-dose bait.
  6. Once control has been achieved, inspection and service of permanent bait sites is essential every two weeks. Record the location and numbers of trapped mice and maintain these records.
  7. Caution: All baits are poisonous to rodents, chickens, animals and people. Place baits carefully to prevent contamination of feed and eggs or accidental access by poultry and humans. Bait should not be placed loosely on the ground in areas frequented by people who might carry it on shoe soles and contaminate sensitive areas.

Insects

Basic control strategy

The control of flies and beetles, which also may be salmonella vectors, requires use of a variety of practices. This reduces the selection pressure encountered with any single method. For example:

  1. Keep manure well ventilated and dry.
  2. Prevent water leaks and remove any wet areas.
  3. If possible, use biological control methods (fly parasites and predators).
  4. Use different classes of insecticides. Alternate, for example, among organic phosphates (Malathion), carbamates (Sevin) and pyrethrins.

Insecticide application

  1. After the floor is dry following cleaning and disinfection, apply an approved insecticide to the floor, support poles and walls to control beetles and other insect pests.
  2. Synergized pyrethrins (pyrethrin + piperonyl butoxide) are among the few insecticides that can be utilized in automatic spray systems inside poultry houses. Their advantages are ability for quick knockdown of flying insects, short residual times and low mammalian toxicity. The rate of application of such insecticides, particularly when applied by an automatic spray system, should be no more frequent than twice a week.
  3. Follow all manufacturer-recommended safety precautions when applying insecticides.

Wild birds and pets

Avoid feed spills outside buildings and clean up immediately if they occur. Buildings should be constructed not only to exclude wild birds but to avoid birds perching under eaves or on blinds. Pets should be banned from pullet and layer houses.

Decontamination of facilities

To reduce the risks of a flock-to-flock build-up of salmonella and other infectious agents, a between-flock pullet and layer house decontamination program is necessary.

If any of your facilities tested salmonella-positive, the facility needs to be decontaminated promptly after bird removal to prevent residual contamination from infecting your replacements.

Successful decontamination programs require thorough, systematic implementation, proper equipment and professional training.

Decontamination of conventional facilities presents the table egg industry with a serious challenge due to facility size and complexity. Additionally, the common use of wooden construction materials, which are porous, appears to provide bacteria protection from the killing effects of disinfectants. Plastic and fibrous egg handling surfaces also appear to be more difficult to disinfect than non-porous metal surfaces. This problem will diminish the effectiveness of the decontamination procedures outlined in these guidelines.

Formaldehyde has been widely used in the past to help disinfect porous materials. Although particularly effective against salmonella, its use appears in jeopardy because of human safety concerns, product availability and regulatory policies. Application of alternative fumigants, heat-enhanced disinfectants, high-pressure sprays or disinfectant foams, and use of sealants to reduce wood porosity, may need to be further assessed as possible aids in disinfecting porous surfaces.

Facility decontamination needs to include the following basic considerations and precautions. Step-by-step decontamination procedures and the names and properties of various commercial disinfectants follow.

Basic considerations

  1. Invest in thorough dry cleaning with removal of all caked, layered or loose debris. This simplifies future cleanup operations and reduces the expense of wet cleaning.
  2. Disinfectants and fumigants are effective only on clean surfaces. Cleaning and disinfection programs, when not fully effective at first, have been reported to have increased efficacy when they were improved and redone or repeated from flock to flock. A 1991 study reported a significantly improved probability for maintaining salmonella-negative replacements when they were placed in facilities that had previously passed both visual inspections and post-disinfection laboratory tests.
  3. Bacteria can multiply on damp surfaces; therefore, disinfection should be started soon after washing/rinsing, and preferably within 24 hours.
  4. Drying of the facility immediately after application of disinfectants is advisable. Dryness is an impediment to salmonella multiplication.
  5. Carefully follow all disinfectant safety, dilution and application directions provided by the manufacturer. Consult with the suppliers of both your equipment and disinfectants for the best and safest procedures for such items as egg elevators and belts, feeders, waterers and cages.

Decontamination step-by-step

Additional detail on the problems of decontamination in today's industry is provided in Cleaning and Disinfecting Problems in Cage Layer Houses (Graves) and in Constructing Cage Layer Houses for Cleaning Ease (Graves). To order, refer to the Appendix.

Bird removal

  1. Remove all dead and live birds from the building; this includes all escaped birds in the deep pit or outside.
  2. Immediately begin vector control procedures during bird removal. Refer to guideline section on Vector Control.

Dry cleaning

  1. Clean fans and other air inlets from the outside.
  2. On the inside, brush, sweep, vacuum and wipe dust and other dirt from ceilings, light fixtures, beams, ledges, walls, cages, fan parts, air inlets and walkways. Move from top to bottom.
  3. Promptly open feeder lines and remove feed from trough, all line corners and all other points of feed accumulation.
  4. Open egg conveyance equipment at the front of the building and remove all dust and egg debris. Remove all broken parts and all soiled items that cannot be cleaned.
  5. Remove as much manure from dropping boards as possible. Manual scraping, in addition to low-speed mechanical scraping, may be helpful.
  6. Remove all litter and manure from floor or cage houses, including all corners, augers and pit ends. Refer to section on Bacteriological Monitoring for NIOSH alert on manure pit hazards. Hard surface (concrete) floors can be cleaned faster and more easily than clay or earthen floors. Completely remove all manure. Hand sweeping and shoveling will be necessary around the perimeter, doorways, walkways, support poles, and corners of most houses to do a satisfactory job. If possible, fill trailers with manure inside the house and cover before moving it to a disposal or composting site. Manure should not be spread near poultry facilities.
  7. Remove egg belts and sweep away all debris accumulating on both the top- and under-sides of the belt.
  8. Rid pullet or layer houses, storage and egg rooms, egg coolers, hallways and stairways of all debris and non- essential items. Repeat for adjacent break, wash and restrooms or portable toilets.
  9. Turn off power to electrical equipment prior to dry or wet cleaning. Non-removable motors, switches, etc., have been dry cleaned with compressed air or brushing. Extreme care should be taken so as not to get any sprays inside electric motors. Duct tape can be used to cover the slots in motor housings prior to wet cleaning and disinfection. The tape must be removed after wet cleaning and disinfection is completed.

Wet cleaning

Wet cleaning includes the steps of soaking, washing and rinsing. Use of hot water is preferred. Detergents and other surfactants are often added to the washing solution to loosen debris and films and allow better penetration of cleaning agents. Salmonella can multiply to high numbers in the presence of debris and moisture. Therefore, the following steps should be executed without interim waiting periods.

  1. Soften dirt in heavily soiled areas. A low pressure (200-300 psi) sprayer, delivering 10-30 gallons/minute, is considered adequate.
  2. Washing. Professional contractors use a systematic spray technique. They start at the back and work toward the front of the building, spraying the ceiling first, then the walls, and finally the floor.
  3. Use sprayer attachments and nozzles that permit washing of hard-to-reach areas.
    1. Wash ceilings, walls, walkways, steps and cross-over platforms, egg rollers, all egg conveyors, cross belts, floors under conveyors, stairs to pit, outside stairs and concrete pit floors; clean everything completely.

      Although use of pressure sprays ranging from 200-2000 psi have been reported, washing pressures of 750-2000 psi are preferred. At high pressure, however, special care and safety garments are needed. Pressure sprayers can cut human skin like a knife. Care must be exercised to follow the manufacturer's instructions for the use this equipment.

    2. Pay special attention not only to the top, but also to the underneath sides of troughs and obvious and hidden surfaces of all chains and augers.
    3. Extreme care is needed for the egg elevator. Check for cleanliness from every angle possible÷from underneath in the pit and from behind rollers. Remove all traces of egg breakage and spillage.
    4. Wash storage and egg rooms, egg coolers, hallways, break, wash and restrooms.
    5. Manually clean any areas that have resisted prior cleaning.

Rinsing

  1. A final rinse is suggested to obtain a truly clean building and to reduce residues of cleaning chemicals.
  2. Immediately remove all puddles. They are bacterial breeding grounds.

Repairs

All repairs should be made at this point (i.e., floor cracks filled, door frames repaired, damaged panels replaced, etc.). Repair manure and egg handling and other equipment.

Dirt floors

In houses with dirt floor pits, a 3 to 6-inch layer of clean soil has reportedly been applied to decrease the risks of recontaminating new stock. The value of this procedure in salmonella prevention is unclear. Concrete floors are generally viewed as preferable.

Inspection

Third-party visual inspection for completeness of the wet cleaning and repair operations is recommended. This may be done by an outside authority or by an in-house, unbiased employee responsible for quality control.

Disinfection

Disinfection should be started within 24 hours of rinsing. Because disinfectants are effective only on clean surfaces, do not begin disinfection until the house has passed its inspection for proper cleaning.

  1. Heat enhancement. All disinfectants, whether sprays, foams, aerosols or fumigants, work best at temperatures above 650° F. Temperatures for chlorine- and iodine-based disinfectants should not exceed 1100° F.
  2. Dangerous mixtures. Each disinfectant is the result of careful formulation, and any addition of detergents, surfactants or insecticides to a disinfectant without the approval of its manufacturer could dangerously reduce the efficacy of one or more of the products in the mixture. For economy, efficacy and human and flock safety, manufacturer's label instructions must be followed carefully.
  3. Evaluation of products. There has been an influx of claims for new salmonella disinfectants and control systems. The Appendix provides guidance on evaluating the efficacy of various products.
  4. One gallon of diluted disinfectant is ordinarily applied to approximately 100-150 square feet of surface area. A calculation for the total amount of disinfectant solution needed has been developed. Determine the total surface area of the floor, ceiling and walls. Add 30% to this area to allow for cage surfaces.
  5. Follow application instructions of the manufacturer. Use of pressure sprays is advisable to help force disinfectants into wood pores, cracks and crevices that protect salmonella. Spray pressures of 500-1000 psi have been suggested. Move from back to front and from top to bottom.
  6. Dirt floors are virtually impossible to fully disinfect. In situations where dirt floors could not be concreted, disinfectant has been applied to the floor at one gallon diluted disinfectant per 10 square feet. A 1991 study reported favorable results with Clorox and formaldehyde. Note formaldehyde warning on next page.
  7. Disinfect egg handling equipment (elevators, egg belts, etc.) in accordance with recommendations provided by equipment and disinfectant manufacturers. The use of steam, vats of water at pasteurization temperatures, or soaking in disinfectant to disinfect egg belts has been suggested but not fully evaluated for efficacy or adverse effects on the belt.
  8. Decontaminate feed bins, boots, augers, hoppers and carts. Sanitize water-lines. Waterline and feed system directions have been published in Biosecurity for Poultry (Brunet). Refer to the Appendix for source. Be careful: metal and non-metallic components of watering systems can be damaged and lines plugged from improper use of sanitizing agents. Check with the manufacturer of farm water handling equipment before implementing any specific chlorine or other sanitation treatments of your wells or water lines.

    Routine chlorination of poultry drinking water to a minimum 1 to 1.5 ppm free chlorine level has been reported in research to reduce the spread of salmonella.

  9. In the past, direct application of formaldehyde solutions (formalin) has been used as a topical disinfectant for salmonella. Formaldehyde fumigation also has been used as a final crack- and pore-penetrating step in salmonella disinfection, provided proper levels of relative humidity (at least 70%) and temperature (at least 700°F) were maintained. Such applications may soon be unlawful.

    WARNING: Formaldehyde and formalin are dangerous chemicals. Consequently, contact state/federal (EPA, OSHA, FDA) authorities and licensed professionals before considering use! Gas masks, protective clothing and rescue plans are essential.

  10. Promptly dry the building. Bullet space heaters have been used to speed drying in cold or damp climates.
  11. Salmonella is invisible. Verify decontamination success by laboratory procedures. Refer to section on Bacteriological Monitoring. Laboratory tests of your pullet or layer facility should be negative before you place either chicks or ready-to-lay hens.

Preparations for restarting***

  1. Replace disposable parts with new ones (for example, sponges on egg conveyor equipment).
  2. To reduce cracked or broken eggs, repair and adjust your egg handling and conveyance system from hen to cooler.
  3. Remove old water filters. Clean and disinfect casing and install new filters.
  4. Restock restrooms and portable toilets with soap and paper towels.
  5. Remove coverings and tape used to protect electrical circuits and motors and make sure that all electrical equipment, time clocks, feed and water lines, egg- and manure-handling devices, brooder stoves, etc. operate properly.
  6. All decontamination equipment such as rakes, shovels, scrapers, brushes, trucks, manure spreaders, bucket loaders and spray/disinfection devices also should be cleaned and disinfected after use and stored in a secure location.

Table 1. Properties and Examples of Common Disinfectanta,b

Special properties Hypochlorites chloramines Iodophors Cresols phenols
Active against Gram negative bacteria (salmonella, E. coli, etc.) Yes Yes Yes
Resistance to organic debris Poor Poor to fair Good
Effect of hard water Nonec Nonec None
Detrimental effect of heat d d No
Residual activity e Yes Yes
Most effective pH range Acid Acid Acid
Compatibility with anionic
surfactants (soaps)
Yes Yes Yes
Compatibility with non- ionic surfactants Yes Yes No
Common brands and names f Chloramine-T
Chlorox
Halazone
Betadine
Bio-Dyne
Iodine
Iofec
Isodyne
Losan
R.I.D.
Tamed
Cresl-400
Environ-D
LpH-AG
Lysol
Orthopheylphenols
PD 256
Tek-Trol
a Modified from Biosecurity for Poultry Lock Diseases Out (Brunet) and Selection and Use of Disinfectants in Disease Prevention (Meyerholz and Gaskin).
b Where product types or names appear, no discrimination is intended and no endorsement over other products not mentioned is implied by the U.S. Animal Health Association (USAHA). Mention of a trade name does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the USAHA.
c Unless hard water is alkaline.
d Use at less than 1100° F; active principal driven off by heat.
e Hypochlorites: no; chloramines: yes.
f Products listed are intended as examples; many other products are not listed. New quaternary ammonium disinfectants exist.

Bacteriological monitoring

Monitoring plans and schedules

State laws, regulations and policies vary on the confidentiality of voluntary monitoring to facilitate the acquisition of research/epidemiologic and/or in-house quality control data. Positive results at any of the bacteriological monitoring times presented below may present complex fiscal, legal and ethical issues. The same may be true for not monitoring. Professional guidance (legal, underwriter and veterinary) is essential in developing monitoring programs and choosing from the following examples for pullet and layer flocks.

 

Table 2. Examples of CHICK/PULLET Monitoring Times, Locations and Purposes

Time/Age Location Purpose
0 to 1 daya,b Chick transport papers, meconium, cull chicks and dead chicks Detection of breeder or hatchery transmitted salmonella
2 weeksc Dropping boards (cage reared) or litter surfaces (floor reared) Detection of infection after period of high susceptibility
10-16 weeks Droppings or drag swabs of manure (litter) surfaces Detection of infection prior to movement to layer facilities
2-3 days after decontamination (C & D) of pullet facility Building/equipment surfaces, fan blades, etc. Evaluation of C & D operation prior to housing new chicks
a A laboratory manual detailing sampling and culture procedures and a magazine update on culture media improvements have recently been published. For more information refer to the Appendix.
b An additional test for salmonella in one-day-old hatchlings is described in the mentioned laboratory manual (Chapter 1, page 5).
c At any age, bacteriological examination of culls, fresh dead, and trapped mice especially, are used to enhance detection efficiency.




Table 3. Examples of LAYER Monitoring Times, Locations and Purposes
Time/Age Location Purpose
10-12 weeks prior to depopulation of layer house a,b,c,d Droppings, or drag swabs of manure (litter), and building/equipment surfaces (for example, egg belts and elevators, fan blades, cages, walls, etc.) Detection of infection with adequate time for decontamination (C & D) and vaccination of pullets
2-3 days after C & D Building/equipment surfaces as listed above Evaluation of C & D operation prior to housing new pullets
a A laboratory manual detailing sampling and culture procedures and a magazine update on culture media improvements have recently been published. For more information refer to the Appendix.
b Use of cull eggs and/or blood (serum) samples are currently being evaluated as additional or alternative monitoring tools.
c At any age, bacteriological examination of culls, fresh dead, and trapped mice especially, are used to enhance detection efficiency.
d More frequent monitoring during lay has also been suggested to increase the likelihood of prompt detection of contamination.

Egg handling

USDA and regional extension booklets detailing egg washing and sanitation practices have been published. To obtain copies, refer to the Appendix.

Basic considerations

Why refrigerate?

It is possible for the egg shell surface to become contaminated with salmonella organisms before, during, or after lay. In some instances, salmonella may contaminate the inside of the egg, either by contaminating the egg before it is fully formed, or by penetrating the shell. According to Humphrey (1990), such cases of contamination result in very few salmonella bacteria in the egg probably fewer than 10 bacteria per egg. Nonetheless, this low number can also lead to trouble.

The egg producer's goal is to eliminate or reduce unknown salmonella from the surface or the interior of the eggs produced. Proper egg washing and sanitizing has performed well in delivering a clean egg to the consumer. The question to address now is, "What about salmonella bacteria inside the egg?"

The goal of an egg handling program in addressing the possibility of internal contamination is to prevent penetrating salmonella organisms from multiplying. We have only two tools to accomplish this: the natural antibacterial properties of egg white, and low temperatures to prevent multiplication.

Egg white contains natural antibacterial products that help to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. In nature, this protective mechanism helps a chick hatch from an egg that is a good growth medium for bacteria as well as chicks. These natural products decline in effectiveness as the egg white ages, but they help prevent bacterial growth during the time the egg is cooling. Cool temperatures help retard the aging of egg white, and thus help maintain its antibacterial properties.

Cold temperatures alone can also prevent or reduce the growth of salmonella organisms. Research (Kim, et al, 1989) has shown that when Salmonella enteritidis was experimentally inoculated into eggs, it did not multiply at 400°F, but did multiply at 500°F. Therefore, reducing egg temperature to 450°F or lower can be used to reduce the risk of salmonella multiplication.

References:

Humphrey, T. J. Public health implications of the infection of egg-laying hens with Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4. World's Poultry Science Journal. 46:5-13. March, 1990.

Kim, C. J., D. A. Emery, H. Rinke, K. V. Nagaraja, and D. A. Halvorson. Effect of time and temperature on growth of Salmonella enteritidis in experimentally inoculated eggs. Avian Dis. 33:735-742. 1989.


Feed

Many salmonella serotypes have been found in feed and feed ingredients. Salmonella contamination after manufacturing also needs to be prevented. Care should be exercised in selecting feed suppliers and in shipping and storing feed.

Biosecurity

Biosecurity practices for the prevention of most virus, mycoplasma, and various bacterial diseases are equally appropriate in an integrated salmonella risk reduction program.

Salmonella best gains a foothold when a virus or other infectious agent weakens your flock's natural defenses. Research has demonstrated that bursal disease, coccidiosis, mycoplasmosis, infectious bronchitis, mycotoxicosis, and even antibiotic medication may increase susceptibility to salmonellosis. Consequently, every step in biosecurity (human traffic control, cleaning and disinfection of all materials moving between flocks, proper building location and construction, and much more) adds up to an investment in survival. Look not at biosecurity as an expense– look at it instead as an insurance premium helping to ensure a more predictable future.

Humans can also carry salmonella to your chickens and their eggs. Consequently, the personal hygiene of all farm workers is an essential consideration. Provide enough clean, operable toilets, with hand washing and drying facilities, in locations and numbers to serve all employees. Pullet and layer buildings are closer to nurseries and kitchens than many fully appreciate!

Additional materials (videotapes, pamphlets, etc.) to inspire, train, and retrain everyone in your operation are available for use at all levels, from the owner to the hired hand. (Refer to the Appendix.) Review such materials regularly. If you cannot adopt all recommended practices, adopt some of them. Then add more every year until you have built a solid defense.

Biosecurity/hygiene check lists

*Excerpted with permission from the 1991 United States Animal Health Association Salmonella Committee "Integrated Guidelines for Table Egg Producers" with input from members of the Minnesota Poultry Industries Association.

**Adapted from Diseases of Poultry. Ninth ed. 1991. Chapter 30, "External Parasites and Poultry Pests." (J. J. Arends). Pp. 727-730.

***Adapted from "Biosecurity for Poultry Lock Diseases Out." 1987. (Brunet).



Appendix: educational resources

Biosecurity

Title Source
Biosecurity and the Poultry Industry. Video cassette. 1988. USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services. 90 minutes. American Association of Avian Pathologists
University of Pennsylvania, New Bolton Center
Kennett Square, PA 19348-1692
$20 per cassette. (215-444-4282)
"Biosecurity for Poultry Lock Diseases Out" Extension Circular 350. Mid-Atlantic Cooperative Extension Poultry Health and Management Unit. 1987. P. Y. Brunet. 9 pp. Cooperative Extension Service, Veterinary Science
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802
Limited copies available.
(814-865-5573)
"Biosecurity for Poultry Stomp the Invisible Enemy." Mid-Atlantic Cooperative Extension Poultry Health and Management Unit. 1987. T. M. Nelson and E. T. Mallinson. 14 pp. T. Milton Nelson
Information and Publications
Cooperative Extension Service
Room 0126, Symons Hall
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742
25 cents per copy. (301-405-4596)
Diseases of Poultry. Ninth Edition. 1991. Eds. Calnek, Barnes, Beard, Reid and Yoder. 944 pp. illus., hardcover Iowa State University Press
Dept. 1787, 2121 S. State Ave.
Ames, IA 50010
$94.95 (Discount price $85.46)
(515-292-0155)
"Proposed Georgia SE Prevention Program for Pullets and Layers." 1991. Cooperatively developed by local state and federal agencies. Dr. D.C. Johnson
Area Veterinarian in Charge
USDA, APHIS, VS
1000 Iris Drive, Suite G
Conyers, GA 30207
(404-922-7860)
"Keeping Egg Production Safe from Salmonella enteritidis." Mid-Atlantic Cooperative Extension Poultry Health and Management Unit. 1989. E. T. Mallinson. Basic illustrated flyer for flock caretakers. 2 pp. Dr. E. T. Mallinson
Gudelsky Veterinary Center
University of Maryland
8075 Veterinary Science Drive
College Park, MD 20742-3711
No charge. (301-935-6083)

Cleaning and disinfection

Title Source
"Cleaning and Disinfecting Problems in Cage Layer Houses." Paper No. NAR 85-409. 1985. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. R. E. Graves. 17 pp. Dr. Robert E. Graves
201 Agricultural Engineering Bldg.
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802
(814-865-7155)
"Constructing Cage Layer Houses for Cleaning Ease." Special Circular 318. 1986. R. E. Graves. 11 pp. Agricultural Publications Distribution Center
112 Agricultural Building
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802
No charge for single copy.

Economics/legal

Title Source
"An Overview of Salmonella Litigation Liability." 1990. 7 pp. C. J. Pakuris, Esq.
Margolis, Edelstein, Scherlis, Sarowitz and Kraemer
Curtis Center, 4th Floor
Independence Square West
Philadelphia, PA 19106-3304
(215-922-1100)
"Choosing Between the Breaking Plant and the Slaughter Plant." Egg Industry. May/June 1991. Pp. 28-30. Walter Stephens
Watt Publishing Company
122 S. Wesley Avenue
Mount Morris, IL 61054
(815-734-4171)

Egg sanitation

Title Source
"Regulations Governing the Grading of Shell Eggs, etc." (7CFR Part 56). May 1991. Refer to Section 56.76, "Minimum Facility and Operating Requirements" (p. 9). Agricultural Marketing Service
Poultry Division
USDA
Washington, DC 20250
"Tips for Washing Commercial Eggs." Mid-Atlantic Cooperative Extension Poultry Health and Management Unit. 1989. Chaloupka, Reynnells and Keene. 12 pp.> T. Milton Nelson
Information and Publications
Cooperative Extension Service
Room 0126, Symons Hall
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742
30 cents per copy.

Evaluating products

Title Source
"Disinfection of Poultry Transport Cages." Paper No. 90-6015. 1990. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. El-Assaad, Stewart and Carr. 34 pp. Dr. Larry E. Stewart
Department of Agricultural Engineering
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742
(301-405-2223)
"Guidelines on Disinfection in Animal Husbandry for Prevention and Control of Zoonotic Diseases." Eds. Russell, Yanych and Koulikovskii. 62 pp. Chief, Veterinary Public Health
Division of Communicable Diseases
World Health Organization
1211 Geneva 27
Switzerland
No charge for one copy.
"Recommended Assay for Treatment of Chicks to Prevent Salmonella Colonization by Competitive Exclusion." G. C. Mead et al. Journal of Food Protection. July 1989. Vol. 52, No. 7, pp. 500-502. Journal of Food Protection
IAMFES
502 E. Lincoln Way
Ames, IA 50010-6666
(515-232-6699)

Laboratory Methods

Title Source
A Laboratory Manual for the Isolation and Identification of Avian Pathogens. Chapter 1, "Salmonellosis." Third Edition. 1989. Eds. Purchase, Arp, Domermuth and Pearson. 227 pp. American Association of Avian Pathologists
University of Pennsylvania, New Bolton Center Kennett Square, PA 19348-1692
$26 per copy
(215-444-4282)
"Novel Salmonella Detection System Developed; Combines Increased Reliability, Practicality." Feedstuffs. January 28, 1991. 4 pp. Feedstuffs
12400 Whitewater Drive, Suite 160
Minnetonka, MN 55343

Renderers

Title Source
List of 190 Animal Protein Producers Industry (APPI) participants with city and state addresses. Dr. F. D. Bisplinghoff
7150 Estero Boulevard
Fort Myers, FL 33931
(813-765-1950)

Vectors

Title Source
"Integrated Pest Management for Poultry." J. J. Arends and S. M. Stingham. 1991. 68 pp. Department of Entomology
Agricultural Extension
Box 7613
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27592-7613
No charge. (919-515-2703)
  • © Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
  • The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. Privacy