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Extension > Agriculture > Nutrient Management > Nutrient/Lime Guidelines > Fertilizer Recommendations for Agronomic Crops in Minnesota > Oat

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Fertilizer Recommendations for Agronomic Crops in Minnesota

Oat

Daniel E. Kaiser, Extension Soil Scientist; John A. Lamb, Extension Soil Scientist; and Roger Eliason, Director, University of Minnesota Soil Testing Laboratory

Revised 2011

In Minnesota, the oat crop is used for either grain and straw or as a nurse crop for seeding legumes. The recommendations in the tables that follow are intended for situations where the crop is grown for grain and straw.

Nitrogen

subsoil map

Figure 1. The fall soil nitrate test should be used for nitrogen recommendations in the counties that are shaded.

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer guidelines can be based on the results of the soil (NO3--N) test or the consideration of the combination of expected yield, previous crop, and soil organic matter content. The soil nitrate test is appropriate for western Minnesota (see Figure 1).

When the soil nitrate test is used, the fertilizer N guidelines are calculated as follows.

Nrec = (1.3) (EY) — STN(0-24 in.) — NPc

Where:

EY = expected yield (lb./acre)
STN = nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) measured to a depth of 24 in. (lb./acre)
Npc = amount of N supplied by the previous legume crop (lb./acre).
These N credits are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1. Nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for oat production for situations where the soil NO3--N test is not used.

    Expected Yield (bu./acre)
  Crop Grown Last Year Organic Matter
Level*
40-60 61-80 81-100 101-120 120 +
  Alfalfa (4+ plants/ft2) Low
Med and high
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
  Alfalfa (2 to 3 plants/ft2) Low
Med and high
0
0
0
0
20
10
40
30
60
50
  Soybeans
  Alfalfa (1 or less plants/ft2)
Low
Med and high
0
0
20
0
40
30
60
50
80
70
  Edible beans, field peas Low
Med and high
20
10
40
30
60
50
80
70
100
90
  Group 1 Crops Low
Med and high
0
0
0
0
0
0
25
15
45
35
  Group 2 Crops Low
Med and high
40
30
60
50
80
70
100
90
120
110

* low = less than 3.0%; medium and high = 3.0% or more.

The N fertilizer guidelines for situations where the soil NO3--N test is not used are listed in Table 2. The suggested rate of N fertilizer should be applied before planting. All sources of fertilizer should have an equal effect on yield.

Crops in Group 1:

Alsike clover, birdsfoot trefoil, grass/legume hay, grass legume pasture, fallow, and red clover.

Crops in Group 2:

Barley, buckwheat, canola, corn, grass hay, grass pasture, oat, potato, rye, sorghum-sudan, sugar beet, sunflower, sweet corn, triticale, and wheat.

Nitrogen, when needed, can be supplied from several sources. If applied in a way to prevent loss, all sources of nitrogen have an equal effect on yield. When using either dry or liquid sources, the fertilizer N can be broadcast and incorporated before planting. If anhydrous ammonia is the preferred source, this N fertilizer can be knifed in before planting.

Phosphate and Potash

Current phosphate guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Guidelines for potash are in Table 3. The rates listed are appropriate for both broadcast and banded (drill applied) application. There is no research evidence with this crop to suggest that the banded placement is more efficient than a broadcast application.

Table 2. Phosphate guidelines for oat production.

    Phosphorus (P) Soil Test, ppm*
Expected
Yield
Bray: 0-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21 +
Olsen: 0-3 4-7 8-11 12-15 16 +
lb./acre   — P2O5 to apply (lb./acre) —
40-60   30 20 10 0 0
61-80   40 30 15 0 0
81-100   50 35 20 0 0
101-120   60 45 25 10 0
121 +   70 50 30 10 0

* Use one of the following equations if a phosphate guideline for a specific soil test and a specific expected yield is desired.

P2O5 rec = [0.644 — (0.032) (Bray P, ppm)] (Expected Yield)
P2O5 rec = [0.644 — (0.041) (Olsen P, ppm)] (Expected Yield)

Table 3. Potash guidelines for oat production.

Expected Yield Phosphorus (P) Soil Test, ppm*
0-40 41-80 81-120 121-160 161 +
lb./acre    
40-60 55 40 20 0 0
61-80 75 55 30 0 0
81-100 95 70 40 0 0
101-120 115 85 45 10 0
121 + 130 90 50 10 0

* Use the following equations if a potash guideline for a specific soil test and a specific expected yield is desired.

K2O rec = [1.2773 — (0.0086) (Soil Test K, ppm)] (Expected Yield)

CAUTION! Do not apply more than 20 lb. N per acre as urea (46-0-0) with the drill. Do not place ammonium thiosulfate (12-0-0- 26) in direct contact with the seed. Do not place fertilizers containing boron in direct contact with the seed.

Other Nutrients

Except for the need for sulfur (S) when this crop is grown on sandy soils, other nutrients are not needed in a fertilizer program. For production on sandy soils, either use 10-12 lb. S/acre with the drill at planting or broadcast 25 lb. S/acre and incorporate before planting.

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