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Extension > Agriculture > Dairy Extension > Feed and Nutrition > Feeding the dairy herd > Table 11-14

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Feeding the dairy herd

Table 15 Table of Contents Table 18

TABLE 16. RELATIONSHIP OF CRUDE FIBER TO ENERGY LEVEL (TDN) IN FEEDa
Feed   Crude fiber
%
ADF
%
TDN
%

Shelled corn   2 3 91
Ear corn   9 11 85
Barley   6 8 83
Soybean meal   7 9 85
Oats   12 15 76
Screenings Sample A (good quality) 8 10 77
Sample B (fair quality) 18 22 61
Sample C (poor quality) 31 36 55
Alfalfa (mid-bloom)   31 38 56
Corn cobs   36 44 47

a Values expressed on a 100% DM basis.

Back: Crude fiber

TABLE 17. COMMON FEED ADDITIVES
Additives Function(s) Recommendation

Anhydrous ammonia (NH3) Source of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) for ruminants; improves fiber digestibility, and serves as a forage preservative. Add 7 lb/wet ton of corn silage; 20 lb/ton of baled hay; 40 to 60 lb/ton administered as a gas for 1 to 3 weeks for straw or corn stalks.
Amprolium (Coriad) Prevents and treats coccidiosis in young calves. Add 2.25 mg/lb of body weight for 5 to 21 days to milk or milk replacer. Calves may increase weight gain 10 to 20 lb in the first 16 weeks of life. This improvement does not always occur. Calves may develop disease organisms resistant to the drug. No advantage is observed in older heifers or cows. Check specific product label for level and withdrawal time.
Anionic salts (MgSO4, NH4Cl, CaCl2, NH4SO4, CaSO4) Acidifies diets, stimulating intestinal absorption and bone mobilization of calcium, aiding in the prevention of milk fever. Add to close up dry cow ration 2 to 3 weeks prepartum. Increase dietary calcium to between 150 and 180 grams. Remove anionic salts after calving.
Bentonite A clay mineral which swells 5 to 20 times in the rumen and has adsorption properties. Adds bulk in the ration and slows the rate of feed passage. Also used as a binder in pelleting feed. Bentonite can correct milk fat depression due to heavy grain feeding. Add 5% (100 lb/ton) in the grain mixture. Fat test will not increase above normal. Cows may consume large amounts when offered free choice.
Beta-carotene Source of beta-carotene and vitamin A. The corpus luteum (yellow body) on the ovary contains high levels of beta-carotene, which may influence reproduction. Immune function may be enhanced. Feed 180 to 300 mg/cow starting 2 week preparation until cow is diagnosed pregnant. Not routinely recommended.
Buffers (see sodium bicarbonate, sodium sesquicarbonate and magnesium oxide)
Choline Involved with lipid synthesis and secretion from the liver. Cows with fatty liver problems fed high grain diets, ketotic cows, and high-producing cows. Must bypass rumen to be effective.
Fat (oil) Source of concentrated energy (2.25 times higher than starch) that can increase milk yield and fat test. Early lactation (120 days postpartum) when cows are in negative energy balance (losing body weight). General recommendation is 1 lb/cow/day of supplemental fat.
Ionophores
   Monensin (Rumensin) or
   Lasalocid (Bovatec)
Antibiotics (coccidiostats) which alter rumen fermentation, increasing propionic acid and decreasing acetic. Improves rate of gain in heifers. Illegal to feed to lactating or dry dairy cows. 60 to 300 mg/day for heifers.
Larvicide Prevents the development of fly larvae in manure. Cattle must consume it daily. Sanitation is essential since it controls only flies that breed in manure.
Magnesium oxide Source of magnesium (54% by weight). Corrects milk fat depression. Increases the uptake of milk fat precursors at the mammary gland. Alkalizing effect in the rumen. Milk fat depression from high grain feeding may be corrected with .2 lb/cow/day. More response occurs when combined with sodium bicarbonate. It will not raise test above normal. Magnesium oxide is unpalatable.
Methionine (methionine hydroxy analog, MHA) An essential amino acid used in protein and fat synthesis. Fat test may increase. Milk yield responses are not consistent. May help fat test in top-producing cows.
Mineral—chelated Mineral is chemically bound to organic matter, which increases solubility and absorption. No research to indicate increased milk production. May improve immune function.
Niacin Water soluble B vitamin that is needed for energy transformation, slows fat mobilization, controls fatty liver and increases feed intake. Feed 6 mg/cow/day from 2 weeks prepartum to 10 weeks postpartum to fat cows, ketotic-prone cows and high-producing cows.
Propionic acid Serves as a feed preservative which acidifies the feed and inhibits mold growth. Normal acid in the rumen of a cow. Add 1/2 to 1-1/2% of the feed. Level will depend on feed moisture level and length of storage.
Propylene glycol Liquid or dry product converted to blood sugar in the liver of the cow. Increases circulating blood glucose (sugar). Effective way of preventing primary ketosis by maintaining blood sugar levels. It must be administered before cows go off feed and may be unpalatable. Some cows require drenching. Administer 8 ounces twice a day until ketones disappear from the milk (use ketone test kit).
Sodium bicarbonate
sodium sesquicarbonate
Maintain desired pH (6.2 to 6.8) in the rumen, which improves feed intake and digestibility, corrects volatile fatty acid production, and can help maintain normal milk fat test. Feed 1/4 to 1/2 lb/cow/day when corn silage is the main forage, during periods of heat stress, when off-feed is a problem such as during the early postpartum period, or when the ration DM is low (below 50%).
Urea Source of nonprotein nitrogen for ruminants. Add 10 lb/ton of wet corn silage or 1% incorporation into the grain mix. Maximum of .4 lb of urea/cow/day.
Yeast Irradiated yeast is a source of vitamin D and B-complex vitamins. Changes the fermentation pattern in the rumen. No advantage in adding yeast to livestock rations with sufficient B-complex vitamins. Yeast will not persist in the rumen because of acids present. Consistency of the manure may change.
Zinc methionine (Zin-Pro) Source of zinc. Organic chelated form plus methionine, which is not degraded in the rumen. 4.5 g/cow/day is suggested for cows with feet and leg problems (4% zinc product).

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Table 15 Table of Contents Table 18

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