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Extension > Agriculture > Dairy Extension > Labor/Employees > Minimize your risk of I-9 problems

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Minimize your risk of I-9 problems

Chuck Schwartau
Extension Educator
December 10, 2011

The United States Customs and Immigration Service (USCIS) has been increasing its inspections of employee records in recent months to verify employees’ eligibility to work.  In New England, Michigan and the Pacific Northwest there have been several inspections on dairy farms that have resulted in fines and loss of employees.  The current pattern of action leans toward fining the employers for employing undocumented workers rather than detaining and deporting the employees.  This practice results in less net cost for the agency and creates a strong incentive for employers to comply with the law. 

So far in Minnesota, reports of inspections have been minimal with action focusing more on other industries than on farms.  That doesn’t mean farms can be complacent, however.  It only means you have time to be sure your employment practices and documentation are correct.

The target of inspections and the defense of the employer is the “I-9: Employment Eligibility Verification”.  The I-9 is a short form the employee and employer completes that verifies the employee is eligible to work in the United States.  When USCIS conducts an inspection, they are looking at those same forms to be sure they are properly filled out and can be verified against the employees on the farm or in the business.  They will also be looking for any evidence that would lead them to believe the employer knew or should have known that one or more employees was not properly documented as eligible for employment.  A recent dairy farm inspection in Michigan resulted in fines of nearly $3 million dollars and three to five years of probation for knowingly and repeatedly hiring undocumented workers.

What are red flags to be watching for in your hiring?

These aren’t the only red flags but are two major ones.  These aren’t the only things the USCIS will be looking for either.

Here are several other steps you can take to protect yourself and your business:

An excellent resource is the Handbook for Employers. It discusses the I-9, gives examples and answers questions about the form and documents.  The handbook can be downloaded from

While this is by no means all you need to know about I-9s, it is a good start.  If you want help, there are attorneys and others specializing in labor and immigration law who are very willing to help for a fee.

For further information on labor management see the University of Minnesota Extension Dairy webpage at and look under “Employees”.

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